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  • 1985-1989  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary DNA fingerprinting with two minisatellite (33.15, M13) and two simple repeat probes [(GACA)4, (CAC)4/ (GTG)5] was performed to screen for somatic changes in the DNA from various solid human tumours in comparison with constitutional DNA from the same patient. Loss of bands or changes in band intensitities were observed. Together the probes 33.15 and (CAC)5/(GTG)5 detected deviating fingerprint patterns in 63% of the colorectal carcinomas investigated. In mammary and stomach carcinomas, only 1/11 and 2/11 tumours, respectively, showed differences with either of the three probes, 33.15, (GACA)4 and (CAC)5/(GTG)5.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Epistasis ; Genotype x environment inter-actions ; Forage maize breeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Three-way cross means were predicted with formulae involving linear functions of general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects estimated from single-cross factorials between genetically divergent populations. Data from an experiment with 66 single-cross and 66 three-way cross forage maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids was used for comparing the prediction formulae. The genotypic correlation (r) between observed and predicted three-way crosses increased with increasing χ, the weighting factor of SCA effects, for plant height and ear dry matter (DM) content. It displayed slightly convex curves for total and stover DM yield, ear percentage, and metabolizable energy content of stover. For Jenkins' method B, r was considerably less than 1.0 for all traits, indicating the presence of epistasis. The square root of heritability (hĜ) of the predicted means decreased with increasing χ, the reduction being small with a greater number of test environments. Using the product r·hĜ as a criterion of efficiency, none of the prediction methods was consistently superior and the differences among them were rather small (〈 7.5%) for all traits, irrespective of the number of test environments. We recommend evaluating the GCA of a greater number of lines from each parent population in testcrosses with a small number of elite lines from the opposite population. All possible three-way or double crosses between both sets of lines should be predicted by Jenkins's method C. This procedure allows one to select with a higher intensity among the predicted hybrids and thus should increase the genetic gain.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The importance of epistasis for forage performance and quality traits was studied in early maturing European maize (Zea mays L.) breeding materials. Sixty-six three-way crosses (3W), 33 of the flint x (dent · dent) and 33 of the dem × (flint · flint) type, were compared with the mean of their respective non-parental single crosses (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:01799541:PBR185:PBR_185_mu1" location="equation/PBR_185_mu1.gif" extraInfo="missing"/〉) using data obtained in six environments. For each of the 11 traits examined, at least 6 out of the 66 three-way crosses displayed significant (P 〈 0.05) epistatic deviations, calculated as 〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:01799541:PBR185:PBR_185_mu1" location="equation/PBR_185_mu1.gif" extraInfo="missing"/〉– 3W. Averaged over crosses and environments, epistatic deviations were highly significant (P 〈 0,31] for 8 trails, but of minor importance except for grain yield. In general, the variance of epistatie deviations was appreciably smaller than the variance of genotype × environment interactions. Highly significant correlations occurred among epistatie deviations for silking date, dry matter content of ear, and dry matter yield of grain and stover. The reliability of predicting the performance of three-way crosses from 2W as opposed to assessing them directly was investigated as a function of the number of test environments. Disturbing e fleets of epistasis on prediction only became important under intense testing (〉 3 or 4 environments), With fewer test environments, both procedures were almost equivalent, due to a smaller influence of genotype × environment interaction on the 〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:01799541:PBR185:PBR_185_mu1" location="equation/PBR_185_mu1.gif" extraInfo="missing"/〉 values, Epistasis is concluded to be of minor importance with regard to the optimum type of hybrid for forage use.
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