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  • 1985-1989  (5)
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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The differences of the two planets in dynamical characteristics and inert gas abundances require major differences of formation. There probably was an impact into the Earth much greater than any into Venus. The resulting heat pulse would have caused more rapid and thorough outgassing of the Earth, lending to an ocean retaining water. Water is the key to the differences in evolution between the planets. A most important consequence was less effective recycling of lithosphere on Venus, leading to a thick global crust which suppressed plate tectonics. Stratification is more pronounced in Venus, but there must remain sufficient heat sources at depth for convective support of the high plateaus.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Terrest. Planets: Comp. Planetology; p 16
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The formation of the Earth, was mainly from sizeable bodies: perhaps moon sized. Models of interaction among small planetesimals which take into account only close encounters all lead to the formation of moon sized objects, thus leading to several 100 in the inner solar system. Longer term interactions, such as secular resonance sweepings, are needed to get these planetesimals together to form the observed terrestrial bodies. After the accumulation of the Earth, during which core formation certainly occurred, further impacts probably influenced the locations of rifting centers in the system of mantle convection and crustal differentiation. They may have affected craton stabilization by promoting lateral heterogeneity, but had little influence on the key problem of early recycling of sial.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on the Early Earth: The Interval from Accretion to the Older Archean; p 45-47
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Aspects of star formation are considered, taking into account those observations and models which have a relation to the formation of the solar system. Attention is given to the galactic structure, the stellar properties, planetary indications, interstellar clouds, observations of forming stars, the conditions for cloud collapse, models of star formation, the modeling of secondary features, and aspects of dynamical evolution. Aspects of cosmochemistry are also explored. Questions of chronology are discussed along with nuclide variations, chemical variations among chondritic meteorites, and chemical variations among differentiated objects. A description of planet formation is provided, taking into consideration, gas-dust interaction, sun and accretion disk dynamics, planetesimal swarms, planet-disk interactions, planetary systems, terrestrial planet formation, and gaseous protoplanet contraction.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Two-dimensional Fourier admittance functions have been estimated for various regions of Venus, using as input the Pioneer Venus topography data and the Venus vertical gravity model of Sjogren. Model admittance functions are computed for various cases, such as lithospheric loading from above, and support from below, for comparison. These models are functions of depth of compensation, flexural rigidity, and crust and mantle densities. The long wavelength topography and gravity signals contain most of the spectral power in the Venus data, and the admittances at these wavelengths are compatible with deep compensation of surface topography.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Terrest. Planets: Comp. Planetology; p 20
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The dynamics of iron, its thermal state and its phase in the accreting Earth probably played a major role in the Earth's early thermal evolution. Plausible impact thermal histories make it possible that pure iron was molten in the accreting Earth after it was about 10% grown. Hence, iron eutectic alloys (FeS, FeO) certainly were. Additionally, the initial temperature of the core is an important constraint on the secular cooling of the early Earth and on the strength of the early geodynamo. Whether iron is solid or molten would influence geochemical equilibria in the upper and lower mantle; the mode of core formation, by spherical or near-spherical blobs, stalk-like instabilities, or something more catastrophic would influence the partitioning of siderophiles between silicate and iron phases. Early descent of iron (during accretion) favors partitioning according to low-pressure phase equilibria, whereas late descent favors higher pressure. The later core formation occurs, the greater the heat pulse, due to the strong dependence of gravitational potential energy on planetary radius. The heat may homogenize the mantle if core formation is global; otherwise, heterogeneity of iron differentiation may leave some of the pre-archean mantle unaffected. The larger the chunks of proto-core (and hence smaller surface/volume ratios) the greater the heterogeneity.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on the Early Earth: The Interval from Accretion to the Older Archean; p 17-19
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