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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 320 (1986), S. 55-56 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The red colour of the surface of Mars has long been attributed to Fe3+-bearing minerals in the regolith, implying that oxidizing conditions have prevailed. However, the apparent enrichment of iron in martian regolith, its mineralogy and the nature of the unweathered parent rocks remain poorly ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Jarosites, which are present in terrestrial gossans capping oxidized sulfides associated with mafic igneous rocks, may also be present in Martian regolith. Spectral characteristics of jarosites are displayed in remote sensed reflectance spectra of bright regions of Mars surface. The occurrence of jarosite in the regolith would imply that acidic permafrost and sulfide ores exist beneath the surface of Mars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986; p 176-177
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Large areas of Mars' surface are covered by oxidative weathering products containing ferric and sulfate ions having analogies to terrestrial gossans derived from sulfide mineralization associated with iron-rich basalts. Chemical weathering of such massive and disseminated pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages and host basaltic rocks in the Martian environment could have produced metastable gossaniferous phases (limonite containing poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates and oxyhydroxides, clay silicates and opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost on Mars, may still be acidic due to incomplete buffering reactions by wall-rock alteration of unfractured host rock. Such acidic solutions stabilize temperature-sensitive complex ions and sols which flocculate to colloidal precipitates at elevated temperatures. Sampling procedures of Martian regolith will need to be designed bearing in mind that the frozen permafrost may be corrosive and be stabilizing unique complex ions and sols of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni and other minor elements.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 46-47
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Paragenetic evidence that indicates that hisingerite may have formed during the evolution of Martian regolith is summarized. Hisingerite was once regarded as poorly crystalline iron-rich smectite or nontronite. However, recent electron microscopy and X-ray studies have revealed hisingerite to have an amorphous or gel structure containing a disordered array of (FeO6) octahedra and (SiO4) tetrahedra. It is just this coordination environment and degree of crystallinity that matches materials simulating the spectral properties of the bright regions of Mars. Therefore, hisingerite and basic ferric sulfate minerals appear to be major contributers to remote sensed reflectance spectral profiles of Mars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986; p 175
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks may have contributed significantly to the chemical weathering reactions that produced degradation products in the Martian regolith. By analogy with terrestrial processes, a model is proposed whereby supergene alteration of these primary Fe-Ni sulfides on Mars has generated secondary sulfides (e.g., pyrite) below the water table and produced acidic groundwater containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Ni and sulfate ions. The low pH solutions also initiated weathering reactions of igneous feldspars and ferromagnesian silicates to form clay silicate and ferric oxyhydroxide phases. Near-surface oxidation and hydrolysis of ferric sulfato- and hydroxo-complex ions and sols formed gossans above the water table consisting of poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates (e.g., jarosite), oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite) and silica (opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost, contains hydroxo sulfato complexes of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, etc., which may be stabilized in frozen acidic solutions beneath the surface of Mars. Sublimation of permafrost may replenish colloidal ferric oxides, sulfates and phyllosilicates during dust storms on Mars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 48-50
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks may have contributed significantly to the chemical weathering reactions that produce degradation products in the Martian regolith. By analogy and terrestrial processes, a model is proposed whereby supergene alteration of these primary Fe-Ni sulfides on Mars has generated secondary sulfides (e.g., pyrite) below the water table and produced acidic groundwater containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Ni, and sulfate ions. The low pH solutions also initiated weathering reactions of igneous feldspars and ferromagnesian silicates to form clay silicate and ferric oxyhydroxide phases. Near-surface oxidation and hydrolysis of ferric sulfato-and hydroxo-complex ions and sols formed gossan above the water table consisting of poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates (e.g., jarosite), oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite), and silica (opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost contains hydroxo sulfato complexes of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, which may be stabilized in frozen acidic solutions beneath the surface of Mars. Sublimation of permafrost may replenish colloidal ferric oxides, sulfates, and phyllosilicates during dust storms on Mars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MEVTV Workshop on Nature and Composition of Surface Units on Mars; p 34-36
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Information on the surface mineralogy, chemical composition, and lithology of terrestrial planets, as well as on their atmospheres, that can be obtained by earth-based from visible and NIR spectra of light reflected from planetary surfaces is discussed. Such reflectance spectra may have absorption bands in the 1- and 2-micron wavelength regions which originate from crystal field transitions within Fe(2+) ions. Since pyroxenes with Fe(2+) in M2 positions usually dominate the spectra, the resulting 1-micron vs 2-micron spectral determinative curves can be used to identify compositions and structural types of pyroxenes on the surface of a planet or an asteroid. Future spececraft missions to solar system objects will concentrate on remote-sensing experiments using visible and NIR reflectance spectra. These include the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Mars Orbiter mission to Phoebus; the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission; the Cassini mission to Saturn; the Lunar Geoscience Observer; and the Mars Rover/Sample Return mission.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Mineralogical Magazine (ISSN 0026-461X); 53; 135-151
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; E570-E57
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  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The appearance of rusty iron-rich oxidized cappings over sulfide-bearing rocks on earth indicates that similar gossans may have formed on the surface of Mars. Electrochemical processes and thermodynamic relationships linking acidity to oxidation-reduction reactions between primary sulfide minerals and their oxidative weathering products present in the regolith of Mars are discussed. Remote-sensed visible spectra of the Martian surface are in keeping with the presence of poorly-crystalline FeOOH, jarosite, silica, and clay silicates found in gossans, while incompletely weathered pyrrhotite may represent the magnetic material observed in Martian regolith.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; Mar. 16-20, 1987; Houston, TX; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1987-03-30
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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