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  • 1
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    Elsevier
    In:  Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 10 (1). pp. 63-92.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Description: In a series of numerical experiments the wind-driven ocean circulation is studied in an idealized, rectangular model ocean, which is forced by steady zonal winds and damped by lateral and/or bottom friction. The problem as described by the barotropic vorticity equation is characterized by a Rossby number (R) and horizontal and/or vertical Ekman numbers (EL, EB) only. With free-slip conditions at the boundaries steady solutions for all chosen values of R are obtained, provided the diffusivity is sufficiently large. For both the forms of frictional parameterization a northern boundary current emerges with an eastward penetration scale depending on R. The recirculation pattern in the oceanically relevant ‘intermediate’ range of R is strongly affected by the type of friction. If lateral diffusion dominates bottom friction, a strong recirculating sub-gyre emerges in the northwestern corner of the basin. Its shape resembles the vertically integrated transport fields in recent eddy resolving model (EGCM) studies. The maximum transport is increased to values several times larger than the Sverdrup transport. The increase in transport is coupled with a development of closed contours of potential vorticity, enabling a nearly free inertial flow. This behaviour provides a sharp contrast to the bottom friction case (Veronis) where inertial recirculation only takes place with values of R so large that the eastward jet reaches the eastern boundary. It is shown that the linear friction law puts a strong constraint on the flow by preventing an intense recirculation in a small part of the basin. A reduction of the diffusivity (EL) in the lateral friction case leads to quasi-steady solutions. The interaction with eddies becomes an integral part of the time mean energetics but does not influence the recirculation character of the flow. The main conclusion of the study is that the horizontal structure of the EGCM-transport fields can be explained in terms of a steady barotropic model where lateral friction represents the dominant dissipation mechanism
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 18 . pp. 320-338.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: We examine the diffusive behavior of the flow field in an eddy-resolving, primitive equation circulation model. Analysis of fluid particle trajectories illustrates the transport mechanisms, which are leading to uniform tracer and potential vorticity distributions in the interior of the subtropical thermocline. In contrast to the assumption of weak mixing in recent analytical theories, the numerical model indicates the alternative of tracer and potential vorticity homogenization on isopycnal surfaces taking place in a nonideal fluid with strong, along-isopycnal eddy mixing. The eastern, ventilated portion of the gyre appears to be sufficiently homogeneous to allow the concept of an eddy diffusivity to apply. A break in a random walk behavior of particle statistics occurs after about 100 days when along-flow dispersion sharply increases, indicative of mean shear effects. During the first months of particle spreading, eddy dispersal and mean advection are of similar magnitude. Eddy kinetic energy is of O(60–80 cm2 s−2) in the model thermocline, comparable to the pool of weak eddy intensity found in the eastern parts of the subtropical oceans. Eddy diffusivity in the model thermocline (Kxx = 8 × 107, Kyy = 3 × 107 cm2 s−1) seems to be higher by a factor of about 3 than oceanic values estimated for these area. Below the thermocline, model diffusivity decreases substantially and becomes much more anisotropic, with particle dispersal preferentially in the zonal direction. The strong nonisotropic behavior, prominent also in all other areas of water eddy intensity, appears as the major discrepancy when compared with the observed behavior of SOFAR floats and surface drifters in the ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Sears Foundation of Marine Research
    In:  Journal of Marine Research, 45 . pp. 259-291.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Description: One hundred and thirteen satellite-tracked buoys have been used during their first 5 months after deployment in order to calculate Lagrangian statistics of the eddy field in the northern North Atlantic between Newfoundland and the Canary basin. r.m.s. velocities are isotropic and increase from southeast to northwest. Lagrangian integral time scales, derived both from correlation function and from dispersion, are slightly anisotropic and decrease from the subtropics toward the North Atlantic Current. Time scale is inversely proportional to the r.m.s. velocity of the eddies. Eddy length scale is approximately constant in the North Atlantic. Dispersion is in good agreement with Taylor's hypothesis, following a t2-law during the first day after release and a linear increase with time during days 10 to 60. Eddy diffusivity increases from 30N to 50N by a factor of about 4 and is linearly dependent on the r.m.s. velocity. The energy containing frequency band of the eddies shifts toward higher frequencies in the northern part of the Atlantic. Beyond the cut-off frequency of the eddies the spectral slope follows a -2 or -3 power law.
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  • 4
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    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 149 pp . Berichte aus dem Institut für Meereskunde an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, 137 . DOI 10.3289/ifm_ber_137 〈http://dx.doi.org/10.3289/ifm_ber_137〉.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 19 . pp. 77-97.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: We report a study of a coastal frontal zone of the southeastern United States based on a field experiment and numerical modeling. The study was conducted in the spring of 1985 during weak to moderate wind stress and strong input of buoyancy from solar radiation and river discharge. The study confirms that the structure and slope of the frontal zone depends on a combination of wind stress and cross-shelf advection of buoyancy. A cross-shelf/depth two-dimensional (x, y), time-dependent numerical model illustrated the response of the frontal zone to the local wind stress regimes. A comparison of model results with field data showed that the model successfully predicted onsets of stratification and mixing. When alongshore wind stress was negative (southward), isopycnals in the frontal zone steepened due to a combination of horizontal advection and vertical convection. When stress was positive (northward), the offshore advection of low density water flattened the isopycnals and potential energy decreased, demonstrating that horizontal advection terms are important in the equation of conservation of buoyancy. The model predicts die offshore advection of lenses of less dense water during upwelling-favorable wind stress. These lenses are of the order of 20 km in cross-shelf scale and represent an efficient mechanism to export nearshore water. The lenses consist of a mixture of low-salinity coastal water and continental shelf water originating further offshore and advected onshore along the bottom. The mean flow inside the frontal zone opposed the mean alongshore wind stress. Part of the alongshore flow was in geostrophy with the cross-shore pressure gradient; the other part was due to an alongshore pressure gradient force (kinematic) of about 1 × 10−6 m s−2 (equivalent sea surface slope = 1 × 10−7), which was trapped along the coast with an offshore width scale of O(10 km). It is likely that the alongshore extent of this pressure gradient was governed by the scale at which freshwater is injected to the continental shelf, i.e., 20–30 km. The pressure gradient force immediately outside of the frontal zone was about −5 × 10−7 m s−2 in the direction of the mean alongshore wind stress. It is hypothesized that, as a result of wind setup and freshwater influx, the northward pressure gradient forced over outer shelf/slope by the Gulf Stream decreases in magnitude onshore, and can even change sign across a nearshore frontal zone of O(10 km). The implied flow field near the frontal zone is therefore highly three-dimensional with |∂v/∂y|≈|∂u/∂x|, where (u, v) are velocities in the cross-shore (x) and alongshore (y) directions, respectively.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    In:  Ocean Modelling, 74 . pp. 5-9.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Pergamon Press
    In:  Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, 35 (8). pp. 1379-1385.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Description: An analysis of published results on the dispersion behavior of SOFAR floats indicates a systematic depth dependence of the mixing length in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. In contrast to the integral time scale, the length scale appears to be independent of eddy intensity in the thermocline (Lx, Ly ∼ 80, 45 km) and in the deep ocean (Lx ∼ Ly : 20 – 30 km). A similar decrease with depth is revealed by particle dispersion in an eddy-resolving circulation model and interpreted as an enhanced effect of wave behavior in the weaker, subthermocline flow. The only weak anisotropy of deep float dispersion suggests an influence of bottom roughness on the structure of eddy variability.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    Deutscher Wetterdienst
    In:  In: Deutsche Meteorologen-Tagung 1989 vom 16. bis 19. Mai 1989 in Kiel : Atmosphäre, Ozeane, Kontinente. Annalen der Meteorologie, 26 . Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany, pp. 118-119. ISBN 978-3-88148-247-9
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    In:  Theory of the general ocean circulation. University of Washington, Seattle . UNSPECIFIED, pp. 3-11.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1988-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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