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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1989-06-23
    Description: Adipsin is a serine protease that is secreted by adipocytes into the bloodstream; it is deficient in several animal models of obesity, representing a striking example of defective gene expression in this disorder. Recombinant mouse adipsin was purified and its biochemical and enzymatic properties were studied in order to elucidate the function of this protein. Activated adipsin has little or no proteolytic activity toward most substrates but has the same activity as human complement factor D, cleaving complement factor B when it is complexed with activated complement component C3. Like authentic factor D, adipsin can activate the alternative pathway of complement, resulting in red blood cell lysis. Decreased (58 to 80 percent) complement factor D activity, relative to lean controls, was observed as a common feature of several experimental models of obesity, including the ob/ob, db/db, and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mouse and the fa/fa rat. These results suggest that adipsin and the alternative pathway of complement may play an unexpected but important role in the regulation of systemic energy balance in vivo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rosen, B S -- Cook, K S -- Yaglom, J -- Groves, D L -- Volanakis, J E -- Damm, D -- White, T -- Spiegelman, B M -- DK31403/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK34605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1989 Jun 23;244(4911):1483-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2734615" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Complement Activating Enzymes/*metabolism ; Complement Factor D/*metabolism ; Complement Pathway, Alternative ; Cricetinae ; DNA/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Immunoblotting ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Obesity/genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins ; Serine Endopeptidases/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2005-08-16
    Description: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a pluripotent cell type that can differentiate into several distinct lineages. Two key transcription factors, Runx2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), drive MSCs to differentiate into either osteoblasts or adipocytes, respectively. How these two transcription factors are regulated in order to specify these alternate cell fates remains a pivotal question. Here we report that a 14-3-3-binding protein, TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), coactivates Runx2-dependent gene transcription while repressing PPARgamma-dependent gene transcription. By modulating TAZ expression in model cell lines, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and primary MSCs in culture and in zebrafish in vivo, we observed alterations in osteogenic versus adipogenic potential. These results indicate that TAZ functions as a molecular rheostat that modulates MSC differentiation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hong, Jeong-Ho -- Hwang, Eun Sook -- McManus, Michael T -- Amsterdam, Adam -- Tian, Yu -- Kalmukova, Ralitsa -- Mueller, Elisabetta -- Benjamin, Thomas -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- Sharp, Phillip A -- Hopkins, Nancy -- Yaffe, Michael B -- CA042063/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM60594/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM68762/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Aug 12;309(5737):1074-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Cancer Research, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, E18-580, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16099986" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/*cytology ; Animals ; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/pharmacology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Humans ; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/*cytology/physiology ; Mice ; Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism ; Oligonucleotides, Antisense ; Osteoblasts/*cytology ; Osteocalcin/genetics ; Osteogenesis ; PPAR gamma/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*physiology ; RNA, Small Interfering ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism/*physiology ; Transcriptional Activation ; Transfection ; Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology ; Zebrafish ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1987-07-24
    Description: Adipsin is a serine protease homolog whose primary structure was predicted from the nucleotide sequence of a differentiation-dependent adipocyte messenger RNA. Immunoblots probed with antisera to synthetic peptides identify two forms of adipsin that are synthesized and secreted by 3T3 adipocytes. These proteins of 44 and 37 kilodaltons are converted to 25.5 kilodaltons by enzymatic deglycosylation. Although adipsin is principally synthesized in adipose tissue, it is also produced by sciatic nerve and is found in the bloodstream. Because of the apparent restriction of adipsin synthesis to tissues highly active in lipid metabolism, its presence in serum, and its modulation in altered metabolic states, this molecule may play a previously unrecognized role in systemic lipid metabolism or energy balance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cook, K S -- Min, H Y -- Johnson, D -- Chaplinsky, R J -- Flier, J S -- Hunt, C R -- Spiegelman, B M -- AM07230/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- AM31405/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- DK34605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1987 Jul 24;237(4813):402-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3299705" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/*enzymology ; Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Complement Factor D ; Endopeptidases/blood/genetics/*secretion ; Male ; Mice ; Molecular Weight ; Organ Culture Techniques ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; Sciatic Nerve/*enzymology ; *Serine Endopeptidases ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1989-09-15
    Description: Gene targeting via homologous recombination-mediated disruption in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells has been described for a number of different genes expressed in these cells; it has not been reported for any nonexpressed genes. Pluripotent stem cell lines were isolated with homologously recombined insertions at three different loci: c-fos, which is expressed at a low level in ES cells, and two genes, adipsin and adipocyte P2 (aP2), which are transcribed specifically in adipose cells and are not expressed at detectable levels in ES cells. The frequencies at which homologous recombination events occurred did not correlate with levels of expression of the targeted genes, but did occur at rates comparable to those previously reported for genes that are actively expressed in ES cells. Injection of successfully targeted cells into mouse blastocysts resulted in the formation of chimeric mice. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of altering genes in ES cells that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner in the mouse, in order to study their function at later developmental stages.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Johnson, R S -- Sheng, M -- Greenberg, M E -- Kolodner, R D -- Papaioannou, V E -- Spiegelman, B M -- DK 31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1989 Sep 15;245(4923):1234-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2506639" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/cytology ; Animals ; Blotting, Northern ; Blotting, Southern ; Carrier Proteins/biosynthesis/*genetics ; Cell Line ; Chimera ; Complement Factor D ; DNA, Recombinant ; DNA-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics ; Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins ; Fatty Acids/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Vectors ; Mice ; *Neoplasm Proteins ; *Nerve Tissue Proteins ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/biosynthesis/*genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos ; RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis/genetics ; *Recombination, Genetic ; Serine Endopeptidases/*genetics ; Stem Cells/*metabolism ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1987-07-24
    Description: Adipsin, a serine protease homolog, is synthesized and secreted by adipose cells and is found in the bloodstream. The expression of adipsin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was analyzed in rodents during metabolic perturbations and in several experimental models of obesity. Adipsin mRNA abundance is increased in adipose tissue during fasting in normal rats and in diabetes due to streptozotocin-induced insulin deficiency. Adipsin mRNA abundance decreased during the continuous infusion of glucose, which induces a hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic state that is accompanied by an increased adipose mass; it is suppressed (greater than 100-fold) in two strains of genetically obese mice (db/db and ob/ob), compared to their congenic counterparts, and is also reduced when obesity is induced chemically by injection of monosodium glutamate into newborn mice. Circulating adipsin protein is decreased in these animal models of obesity, as determined by immunoblotting with antisera to adipsin. Little change in adipsin expression is observed in a model of obesity obtained by pure overfeeding of normal rats (cafeteria model). These data suggest a possible role for adipsin in the above-mentioned disordered metabolic states, and raise the possibility that adipsin expression may be used to distinguish obesities that arise from certain genetic or metabolic defects from those that result from pure overfeeding.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Flier, J S -- Cook, K S -- Usher, P -- Spiegelman, B M -- AM28082/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- AM31405/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- DK34605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1987 Jul 24;237(4813):405-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3299706" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/enzymology ; Animals ; Antigen-Antibody Complex ; Complement Factor D ; Endopeptidases/*genetics/metabolism ; Immune Sera ; Mice ; Mice, Obese ; Obesity/*enzymology/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; Reference Values ; *Serine Endopeptidases ; *Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2009-07-31
    Description: Brown adipose cells are specialized to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat, as a physiological defence against cold and obesity. PRDM16 (PR domain containing 16) is a 140 kDa zinc finger protein that robustly induces brown fat determination and differentiation. Recent data suggests that brown fat cells arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic lineage by the action of PRDM16 (ref. 3); however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this developmental switch is unclear. Here we show that PRDM16 forms a transcriptional complex with the active form of C/EBP-beta (also known as LAP), acting as a critical molecular unit that controls the cell fate switch from myoblastic precursors to brown fat cells. Forced expression of PRDM16 and C/EBP-beta is sufficient to induce a fully functional brown fat program in naive fibroblastic cells, including skin fibroblasts from mouse and man. Transplantation of fibroblasts expressing these two factors into mice gives rise to an ectopic fat pad with the morphological and biochemical characteristics of brown fat. Like endogenous brown fat, this synthetic brown fat tissue acts as a sink for glucose uptake, as determined by positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose. These data indicate that the PRDM16-C/EBP-beta complex initiates brown fat formation from myoblastic precursors, and may provide opportunities for the development of new therapeutics for obesity and type-2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754867/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754867/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kajimura, Shingo -- Seale, Patrick -- Kubota, Kazuishi -- Lunsford, Elaine -- Frangioni, John V -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK081605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM67945/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG3456/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-28/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10-RR-023010/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Aug 27;460(7259):1154-8. doi: 10.1038/nature08262. Epub 2009 Jul 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19641492" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Brown/*cytology/*metabolism ; Animals ; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Choristoma/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Fibroblasts/cytology/metabolism ; Glucose/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Myoblasts/*cytology/*metabolism ; Skin/cytology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2008-08-23
    Description: Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. Here we show by in vivo fate mapping that brown, but not white, fat cells arise from precursors that express Myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. We also demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator PRDM16 (PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16) controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a loss of brown fat characteristics and promotes muscle differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRDM16 in myoblasts induces their differentiation into brown fat cells. PRDM16 stimulates brown adipogenesis by binding to PPAR-gamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) and activating its transcriptional function. Finally, Prdm16-deficient brown fat displays an abnormal morphology, reduced thermogenic gene expression and elevated expression of muscle-specific genes. Taken together, these data indicate that PRDM16 specifies the brown fat lineage from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers and is not involved in white adipogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583329/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583329/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seale, Patrick -- Bjork, Bryan -- Yang, Wenli -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Chin, Sherry -- Kuang, Shihuan -- Scime, Anthony -- Devarakonda, Srikripa -- Conroe, Heather M -- Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye -- Tempst, Paul -- Rudnicki, Michael A -- Beier, David R -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- R01 AR044031/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR044031-11/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-27/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Aug 21;454(7207):961-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07182.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719582" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes, Brown/cytology/*metabolism ; Adipocytes, White/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, Brown/cytology ; Animals ; COS Cells ; *Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Line ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Male ; Mice ; Muscle Development/genetics ; Muscle, Skeletal/cytology/growth & development/*metabolism ; Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5/genetics ; PPAR gamma/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2008-07-25
    Description: Inadequate physical activity is linked to many chronic diseases. But the mechanisms that tie muscle activity to health are unclear. The transcriptional coactivator PGC1alpha has recently been shown to regulate several exercise-associated aspects of muscle function. We propose that this protein controls muscle plasticity, suppresses a broad inflammatory response and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2587487/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2587487/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Handschin, Christoph -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477-09A1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):463-9. doi: 10.1038/nature07206.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. christoph.handschin@access.uzh.ch〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18650917" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chronic Disease ; Exercise/*physiology ; Humans ; Inflammation/genetics/*metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism/physiology ; Obesity/genetics/immunology/physiopathology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2008-02-22
    Description: Ischaemia of the heart, brain and limbs is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypoxia stimulates the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other angiogenic factors, leading to neovascularization and protection against ischaemic injury. Here we show that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha), a potent metabolic sensor and regulator, is induced by a lack of nutrients and oxygen, and PGC-1alpha powerfully regulates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in cultured muscle cells and skeletal muscle in vivo. PGC-1alpha-/- mice show a striking failure to reconstitute blood flow in a normal manner to the limb after an ischaemic insult, whereas transgenic expression of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle is protective. Surprisingly, the induction of VEGF by PGC-1alpha does not involve the canonical hypoxia response pathway and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Instead, PGC-1alpha coactivates the orphan nuclear receptor ERR-alpha (oestrogen-related receptor-alpha) on conserved binding sites found in the promoter and in a cluster within the first intron of the VEGF gene. Thus, PGC-1alpha and ERR-alpha, major regulators of mitochondrial function in response to exercise and other stimuli, also control a novel angiogenic pathway that delivers needed oxygen and substrates. PGC-1alpha may provide a novel therapeutic target for treating ischaemic diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arany, Zoltan -- Foo, Shi-Yin -- Ma, Yanhong -- Ruas, Jorge L -- Bommi-Reddy, Archana -- Girnun, Geoffrey -- Cooper, Marcus -- Laznik, Dina -- Chinsomboon, Jessica -- Rangwala, Shamina M -- Baek, Kwan Hyuck -- Rosenzweig, Anthony -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- P30 DK040561/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK040561-12/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Feb 21;451(7181):1008-12. doi: 10.1038/nature06613.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. zarany1@partners.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18288196" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Hypoxia ; Cells, Cultured ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism ; Ischemia/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism ; *Neovascularization, Physiologic ; Oxygen/metabolism ; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors ; Transgenes/genetics ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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