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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Water-soluble protein (WSP) ; Barley ; β Amylase ; Linkage ; Spring/winter habit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Water-soluble proteins (WSP-2 and WSP-3) and β-amylase (β-AMY-1) were extracted from mature endosperms of 44 spring and 39 winter barley genotypes. The protein and enzyme isoforms were separated in isoelectric focusing gels with a pH gradient of 4–6.5. The Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 loci were located to chromosomes 4H using the wheat/barley chromosome addition lines. Segregation analysis of F2 and doubled haploid populations showed Wsp-2 and β-Amy-1 to be tightly linked, with a map distance of 11 cMorgans. Isoforms of WSP-2 possessed similar pIs to that of WSP-3 and overlapping bands were observed in the gels. These bands segregated independently in F2 and doubled haploid populations, implying two unlinked genes. All three loci were found to be polymorphic: two alleles were detected at the Wsp-2 locus, three at Wsp-3 and two at β-Amy-1. The frequency of alleles at all three loci was found to be different in winter and spring genotypes. Spring genotypes possessed a wider range of phenotypes than winter genotypes. Spring and winter genotypes could be distinguished on the basis of WSP-3 and β- AMY-1 phenotypes. The linkage between Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 loci and genes controlling spring/winter habit on chromosome 4H is discussed. It is concluded that Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 can be used as genetic markers for spring/winter habit in barley genetic research and breeding.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Doubled haploids ; Microspore ; Isozymes ; RFLPs ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Biochemical, molecular and morphological markers have been used to monitor the segregation of alleles at major gene loci in microspore-derived lines of four spring barley crosses and their parents. Significant deviations from the expected Mendelian ratios were observed for four of the ten markers studied in the cross. Distorted ratios were associated with loci located on chromosomes 4H and 6H. The differential transmission of alleles was in favour of the responsive parent (Blenheim) used in the anther culture studies. For the α-Amy-1 locus on chromosome 6H, the preferential transmission of Blenheim alleles was most pronounced in the haploid regenerants that were colchicine treated. These results are discussed in relation to the genetic control of androgenetic response in barley and with respect to the exploitation of another culture in barley improvement.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary 3′-Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase [APH(3′)] enzymes are a group responsible for resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin (Km) and neomycin (Nm) in bacteria. Escherichia coli ECT24, originally isolated from a meat sample, harboured an 83-kb conjugative R-plasmid (pRPJ24) that carries transferable resistance to Km and Nm. Plasmid pRPJ24 was transferred by conjugation to Enterobacter cloacae 94R, which was used as the source of plasmid DNA in development of a probe for the Km-resistance determinant. Random cloning of BamHI and HindIII double-digest restriction fragments of pRPJ24 in the pUC18 vector plasmid produced clones resistant to both Nm and Km carrying a 1.9-kb DNA insert. Southern hybridization of pRPJ24 cloned chimeric plasmid DNA (pKPJ94) showed homology with the APH(3′)II gene from transposon Tn5. A PstI digest of pKPJ94 produced a 920-bp fragment which hybridized with the APH(3′)II structural gene, and was used as a DNA probe for the APH(3′)II subclass gene. A 980-bp BamHI fragment from plasmid pGH54 carrying the APH(3′)I gene from transposon Tn903 was used as a subclass I probe. Total DNA from 206 randomly screened Km-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from raw ground beef and chicken meat samples were examined for the occurrence of APH(3′) subclass I and II using non-radioactively-labelled DNA probes. Thirty-six percent and 60% of the isolates examined carried subclass I and II resistances, respectively, in the isolates from chicken meat samples. The corresponding values for bacterial strains from raw ground beef samples were 51% and 72%, respectively. Four percent of the resistant bacterial isolates from chicken samples did not display homology to either probe. This value was 28% for bacterial isolates from ground beef. Three percent of bacterial isolates from chicken samples and 44% from ground beef samples displayed homology to both APH(3′) I and II DNA probes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1359-5997
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume L’utilisation de la protection cathodique pour neutraliser la corrosion de l’acier dans le béton provoquée par le chlorure entraîne la formation d’ions hydroxyles à la surface du métal enrobé. Les essais préliminaires décrits dans cette note avaient pour but d’évaluer un éventuel effet secondaire de ce processus dans les cas où le béton contient un granulat réactif. Pour les échantillons de béton contenant un granulat de silex calciné, on a montré que l’expansion locale nocive du matériau était provoquée par la réaction silicoalcaline qui se produit dans le voisinage de l’acier enrobé quand celui-ci est soumis à une polarisation potentiostatique pendant une durée de plusieurs mois à −850 mV (échelle SCE). Des études se poursuivent dans le but d’obtenir une connaissance plus approfondie de ce phénomène et contribuer à l’évaluation de ses conséquences pratiques.
    Notes: Abstract The use of cathodic protection as a method of countering chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete causes the formation of hydroxyl ions at the surface of the embedded metal. The preliminary experiments described in this note were aimed at evaluating a possible side-effect of this process under circumstances where the concrete contains a potentially reactive aggregate. For concrete specimens containing calcined flint aggregate, it was shown that deleterious local expansion of the material was generated owing to alkali-silica reaction induced in the vicinity of embedded steel when the latter was subjected to potentiostatic polarization for a period of several months at −850 mV (SCE scale). Continuing investigations are aimed at providing further insight into this phenomenon to aid the assessment of its practical implications.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Grass and forage science 49 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) sown at 2·8-11·2 kg ha−1 in spring was thinned in the autumn by digging plants from alternate 15- or 30-cm lengths of row. Both thinning treatments decreased the subsequent year stand density by 34%. Yields the following year were reduced by 24 and 17% for the 15- and 30-cm treatments respectively, and the next year by 10% for both treatments. Thinning effects were similar at all sowing rates. During the year following thinning, plants did not grow larger in response to the thinning. Thus, development of compensatory growth by lucerne plants following sudden stand thinning is slow.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mercury, cadmium, zinc, and copper concentrations were analyzed in three samples of common guillemot (in April, June, and November). Levels measured were uniformly low, and not enough to have any toxic effects. Adult guillemots had significantly more cadmium in their livers and kidneys than juveniles, with juvenile levels ranging from 25% to 89% of adult levels. Mercury concentrations in liver and kidney were also higher in adults. Juvenile levels represented from 80% to 94% of adults, but there were no age differences in feather and muscle mercury. Mercury levels declined throughout the year in internal tissues from April through June to November. There was a strong seasonal fluctuation in cadmium levels in liver and kidney, rising significantly between April and June and declining again from June to November. These changes were apparent in both adult and juvenile birds. The influences of seasonal processes (namely breeding and moult) and seasonal dietary differences as causative factors in the changes in metal burdens are discussed. These findings have implications for the use of seabirds as monitors of heavy metals in the marine environment.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Total mercury concentrations were determined in samples of body feathers from a range of common seabird species breeding at L»trabjarg, northwest Iceland, St. Kilda, Foula and the Firth of Forth, Scotland and Bleiksøy, Syltefjord, and Hornøy, Norway. Seabirds from L»trabjarg generally exhibited the highest mercury concentrations, with a trend of decreasing mercury concentrations in a southwest to northeast direction in seabirds at the other colonies; seabirds at Hornøy were generally found to have the lowest mercury concentrations. Some species at the Firth of Forth exhibited relatively elevated mercury concentrations compared to those at Foula and Norwegian sites. Inter-colony differences in diet were thought to be relatively small for most species and unlikely to account for the range of mercury concentrations measured in the seabirds (L»trabjarg: lowest arithmetic mean mercury concentration in common guillemots Uria aalge, 1.6 μg/g, s.d.=0.6, n=45; highest arithmetic mean mercury concentration in kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, 5.5 μg/g, s.d.=1.7, n=36). The oceanic transport of mercury, together with the effects of anthropogenic inputs of mercury to the northeast Atlantic, and the removal of mercury from the water column via biological activity are discussed as influential factors determining the observed patterns of mercury concentration in seabirds.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The y-ray source Geminga (2CG195 + 04) was first seen by the SAS-2 satellite (refs 2-4) in observations made roughly 20 years ago. Then, as now, it was one of the three strongest high-energy y-ray sources in the sky, the other two being the Crab and Vela pulsars PSR0531 + 21 and ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Following the SAS-2 and COS-B high-energy y-ray observations of the Crab (0531 + 21) and Vela (0833-45) pulsars1'2, searches were made for additional y-ray pulsars3'5. No other positive results were then found, but calculations have indicated that y-ray emission is likely from other ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 349 (1991), S. 593-594 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We have monitored the brightnesses of several objects in the outer Solar System since 1972, using precision differential photo- electric photometry to compare their apparent stellar magnitudes against a network of well-observed comparison stars close by in the sky5. For this work, we used the ...
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