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  • 1990-1994  (175)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a survey of 528 unrelated haemophilia A patients, six partial deletions of the factor VIII (FVIII) gene were detected by Southern blotting. These deletions were further mapped by a combination of Southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction amplification and found to vary in length between 4.7kb and 57kb. The frequency of detectable FVIII gene deletions (about 1%) is thus considerably lower than previously reported. Statistical analysis of currently available data did not provide any evidence for a deletion “hotspot”. Four of the six deletion patients reported here possessed inhibitors. Taken together with previous data, deletion of the FVIII gene was found to be associated with an approximately fivefold higher risk of developing inhibitors compared with other severe haemophiliacs without gene deletions.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1157
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Quantitative tectonic modelling demonstrates an interaction of flexure of the lithosphere underlying the western Betics with crustal thinning in the Alboran Basin and flank uplift in the Internal Zone. In the eastern Betics the flexural response is overprinted by post-thrusting extensional events. Lateral variations in thermal structure and rheology of the lithosphere along strike of the Betics shed light on changes in tectonic configuration and are consistent with evidence for lateral variations in the mode of extension in the Alboran Basin. Flexural modelling and subsidence analysis of Neogene basins in the Internal Zone of the Betics, with spatial development controlled by contrasts in lithosphere rheology, demonstrate that at least two extensional events have affected the orogenic evolution of the Betics. The first event appears to reflect Oligocene-Early Miocene rifting observed throughout the Western Mediterranean. The second phase, which caused the present configuration of the Betics, corresponds to Tortonian-Recent extension centered in the Alboran Basin.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Phaseolus coccineus ; Pollen vigor ; Seed maturation ; Ovule fertilization ; Seed abortion ; Order of fertilization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Phaseolus coccineus typically has six linearly arranged ovules per ovary. The three ovules near the stylar end of the fruit (positions one, two, and three) are more likely to produce mature seeds, to produce heavier seeds, and to produce more vigorous progeny than the ovules in positions near the peduncular/basal end of the fruit (ovule positions four, five, and six). We conducted a series of field experiments designed to supplement our understanding of the mechanisms determining these position effects. We found that approximately 98% of the ovules in 752 fruits were fertilized — about 0.6% of the stylar ovules were not fertilized, whereas 3.2% of the basal ovules were unfertilized. Moreover, we found that only about 49% of the ovules in these 752 fruits produced mature seeds. Over 60% of the stylar ovules produced mature seeds, whereas only 37% of the basal ovules produced mature seeds. Consequently, the proportion of fertilized ovules cannot explain the differences in seed maturation among the ovule positions. We found that after 6.5 h most of the fertilized ovules were located in the stylar ovule positions, and that there were no fertilized ovules in ovule positions five and six, indicating that the stylar ovules are fertilized first. When only the fastest growing pollen tubes were permitted to enter the ovary (due to exision of the style), only the ovules at the stylar end were fertilized, indicating that the ovule positions that are fertilized first are indeed fertilized by the fastest growing pollen tubes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Cucurbita pepo ; Pollen competition ; Geno-type ; Non-random fertilization ; Pollen performance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This study examines the assumption of the pollen competition hypothesis that genetic differences among microgametophytes lead to differences in pollen performance and result in non-random fertilization. In addition, we examined the assumption that pollen performance is genetically correlated with sporophyte vigor due to an overlap in gene expression between the two stages of the life cycle. The results from a pollen mixture experiment in which two cultivars of common zucchini were used show that the ability to sire seeds is nonrandom with respect to the cultivar of the pollen donor plant. The proportion of the progeny sired by the two cultivars is not independent of the region of the fruit where the seeds are produced. The progeny sired by the yellow cultivar outperformed the progeny sired by the green cultivar in a greenhouse study. In addition, the progeny sired by the yellow cultivar from the stylar region of the fruit germinated faster and had more leaf area than the progeny sired by the same cultivar from the peduncular end of the fruit. Thus, the most vigorous progeny are obtained from the stylar region of the fruit where the ovules are fertilized by the most vigorous microgametophytes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effect of five herbicide safeners on preventing maize (Zea mays L.) injury by acetochlor [N-(2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl)-N-(ethoxymethyl)-chloroacetamide], their influence on herbicide uptake and metabolism to a glutathione (GSH) conjugate as well as on GSH content and glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) in untreated and herbicide with/without safener-pre-treated 4-day-old seedlings were determined. The safeners studied were: AD-67 (N-di-chloroacetyl-1-oxa-4-azaspiro-4-5-decane), BAS-145138 [1-dichloroacetyl-hexahydro-3,3,8a-trimethyl-pyrrolo(l,2-a)pyrimidin-6(2H)-one], dichlormid (N, A,-diallyl-2,2-dichlo-roacetamide), DKA-24 (N, N2-diallyl-N2dichloroacetylglycineamide) and MG-191 (2-dichloromethyl-2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane). All safeners significantly increased [14C]acetochlor uptake and metabolism rate, maize GSH content and GST activity. Seedlings receiving BAS-145138 pre-treatment metabolized almost 70% of the absorbed [14C]acetochlor within 10 min.Safener-enhanced GST activity was always found to be higher when [14C]acetochlor was used as the substrate compared with CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene). Although DKA-24 had a significantly lower influence on both herbicide metabolism and GST activity, it was nearly as effective a safener as BAS-145138, while the others provided no or poor protection to maize from acetochlor injury when they were not incorporated in the soil. Effets d'antidotes sur la toxicité, la pénétration et le métabolisme de I'acétochlore chez le mats etsur l'activité glutathion S-transférase Cinq antidotes d'herbicides diminuaient la toxicité de 1'acétochlore [N-(2-éthyl-6-méthyl-phényl)-N-(éthoxyméthyl)-chloroacétamide] à I'égard du maïs (Zea mays L.). Lew effet sur l'absorption de l'herbicide et sur son métabolisme en un conjugué avec le glutathion (GSH), de même que leur effet sur la teneur en GSH et 1'activité glutathion 5-transférase (GST) ont étéétudiés sur des maïs âgés de 4 jours. Les antidotes étaient: l'AD-67 (N-dichloroacétyl-1-oxa-4-azaspiro-4,5-décane), le BAS-145138 [1 -dichloroacétyl-hexahydro-3,3,8a-triméthyl-pyrrolo(l,2-a) pyrimidine-6(2H)-one], le di-chlormide (N, N-diallyl-2,2-dichloracétamide), le DKA-24 (N, N2-diallyl-N2-dichloracétylgly-cineamide] et le MG-191 (2-dichlorométhyl-2-méthyl-l,3-dioxolane). Tous les antidotes augmentaient de manière significative 1'absorption et le métabolisme de I'acétochlore 14C, ainsi que la teneur du maïs en GSH et son activité GST. Les jeunes plantes prétraitées avec le BAS-145138 métabolisaient en 10 min près de 70% de I'acétochlore 14C absorbé. L'activité GST stimulée par 1'antidote était toujours plus élevée avec I'acétochlore 14C comme substrat qu'avec le CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzène).Le DKA-24 avait un effet significativement plus faible que le BAS-145138 sur le métabolisme de l'herbicide et sur l'activité GSH, mais son action antidote était presque aussi importante. Les autres produits n'apportaient au maïs qu'une protection faible ou nulle contre l'acétochlore quand ils n'étaient pas incorporés au sol. Wirkung von Safenern auf die Phytotoxizität, Aufnahme und Metabolismus von Acetochlor und die Glutathion-S-Transferase-Aktivität in Mais Die Wirkung von 5 Safenern (AD-67, BAS-145138, Dichlormid, DKA-24 und MG-191; chemische Bezeichnungen s.o.) auf die Phytotoxizität von Acetochlor für Mais (Zea mays L.) und ihr Einfluß auf die Aufnahme des Herbizids und Metabolismus zu einem Glutathion-(GSH-) Konjugat und auf die Glutathion-S-Transferase-(GST-)Aktivität wurde an 4 Tage alten Keimpflanzen untersucht. Durch die Vorbehandlung mit den Safenern wurden die [14C]-Acetochlor-Aufnahme- und -Metabolierungsrate, der GSH-Gehalt und die GST-Ak-tivität signifikant erhöht. Mit BAS-145138 vorbehandelte Keimpflanzen metabolisierten fast 70% des absorbierten [14C]-Acetochlor innerhalb von 10 min. Die durch die Safener erhöhte GST-Aktivität bei [14C]-Acetochlor als Substrat war im Vergleich zu Chlordinitroben-zen immer höher. Obwohl DKA-24 einen signifikant geringeren Einfluß sowohl auf den Herbizidmetabolismus als auch auf die GST-Aktivität hatte, war es fast so wirkungsvoll wie BAS-145138, während die anderen ohne Einarbeitung in den Boden für den Mais keinen oder geringen Schutz gegen Schäden durch Acetochlor boten.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chronic toxicity test procedures (static, with renewal) were used to determine the chronic toxicity of sublethal concentrations of a technical formulation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and pure pentachlorophenol toDaphnia magna. Test organisms 48+-12 h old were exposed for their entire lifespan (i.e., until death) to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mg technical PCP/L and 0.01, 0.087 and 0.1 mg pure PCP/L. Criteria used to assess chronic toxicity were mean time to appearance of the primiparous instar in the brood chamber, mean number of days to release of the first brood, mean number of broods produced per female, mean brood size per female, mean number of reproductive days, mean number of young produced per reproductive day per female and survivorship. Pentachlorophenol differentially affected maturation and reproduction but not survivorship or longevity. Mean number of broods produced per daphnid, length of the reproductive period, longevity and survivorship were insensitive criteria relative to mean time to appearance of the primiparous instar, time to release of first brood, brood size, and number of young produced per daphnid per reproductive day. Generally, there was little difference in toxicity of the three concentrations of pure PCP, for they significantly reduced mean brood size and rate of reproduction of young and significantly but differentially affected maturation. Technical PCP, at the highest concentration of 0.5 mg/L, significantly reduced mean brood size and the rate of production of young, and significantly delayed both time to appearance of the primiparous instar and release of the first brood. When differences in toxicity occurred, generally, pure PCP was more toxic than comparable concentrations of technical PCP. Although enhanced maturation was observed there was no compensatory reproduction. Similar conclusions regarding maturation and survivorship would have been derived from this study had it been terminated after the standard 21 d; however, the conclusions would have been different for reproduction. Only the highest concentration of technical PCP reduced brood size, the rate of production of young and total number of young produced per daphnid in 21 d. Only pure PCP at 0.05 mg/L caused daphnids to produce significantly fewer broods and, although the mean brood size was significantly larger than those in the controls, the mean number of young produced in 21 d was significantly reduced. These results differ substantially from those based on the entire life-cycle study and one of the most obvious differences is the much lower rates of young production in the entire life cycle study (2.41–3.03 young per daphnia per reproductive day) opposed to the first 21 days of the study (5.13–7.5 young per daphnia per reproductive day).
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Bioassays using rapid-cycling plants allow measurement of multiple endpoints and assessment of impacts on both growth and reproduction. Selections of Brassica rapa develop rapidly in a broad range of soils and are very consistent in production of flower and seed. Their sensitivity to variation in growth conditions was investigated to define the variables that most affect performance. Yield differences between soils were substantial, indicating the need for careful selection and use of control treatments. The sensitivity to contaminants was investigated with applications of mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) to three soils. In a sand soil, bloom initiation was slowed by 〈10 mg Hg kg−1 soil and 〈50 mg Zn kg−1 soil. In contrast, lettuce emergence and earthworm survival were less sensitive to these metals in this soil. Survival of Daphnia magna and the Microtox® assay in soil extracts were more sensitive to Hg than bloom initiation, but less sensitive to Zn. A similar relationship among the bioassays was observed for two finer-textured soils, although for these, effects were usually apparent only at soil metal concentrations 〉200 mg kg−1. Enzyme assays were included for comparison, but were not sensitive to Hg contamination. Rapid-cycling B. rapa selections are suitable for routine bioassays, and are representative of several widely distributed and utilized species.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Soil persistence and lateral movement of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) and picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) were examined following their application as a stem-foliage spray for brush control on two power line rights-of-way. Ditches to collect runoff water were located 3, 10, 20, and 30 m downslope from the treated areas. Runoff water and soil samples were collected after 0.14, 0.43, 0.57, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 15, 16, and 48 weeks and were analyzed for picloram and 2,4-D residues. Only 3 of 85 soil samples downslope from the target areas contained residues of 2,4-D, and only 1 of 85 down slope samples contained a detectable residue of picloram. Of 56 runoff water samples, only 11 contained 2,4-D residues and only 1 contained residues of picloram. The greatest distances downslope at which residues were detected in runoff water were 20 and 10 m for 2,4-D and picloram, respectively. No residues of either herbicide were recovered in soil or water at 15 weeks or 48 weeks after spraying. Despite normal rainfall frequency and amounts in the first several weeks after spraying in mid-June, significant runoff of either herbicide was not evident at either study site.
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