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  • 1990-1994  (9)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: The present conference on the interstellar medium in galaxies discusses the cool phase of the interstellar medium, molecular clouds in spiral galaxies, interstellar dust in galaxies, and the diffuse interstellar medium. Attention is given to cooling flows and X-ray emission in early-type galaxies, the interstellar medium in active galaxies, abundances in extragalactic H II regions, and thermal phases of the interstellar medium in galaxies. Topics considered include large-scale interstellar gasdynamics in disk galaxies, gas during mergers, magnetic fields in galaxies, and large-scale star formation in the interstellar medium. Also discussed are gaseous halos and disks of galaxies at large redshift, the star-gas cycle in galaxies, measuring atomic hydrogen masses using the 21-cm line, and mass determinations from far-infrared and from CO observations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In 13 years of operation, IUE has gathered approximately 5000 spectra of almost 600 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In order to undertake AGN studies which require large amounts of data, we are consistently reducing this entire archive and creating a homogeneous, easy-to-use database. First, the spectra are extracted using the Optimal extraction algorithm. Continuum fluxes are then measured across predefined bands, and line fluxes are measured with a multi-component fit. These results, along with source information such as redshifts and positions, are placed in the IUEAGN relational database. Analysis algorithms, statistical tests, and plotting packages run within the structure, and this flexible database can accommodate future data when they are released. This archival approach has already been used to survey line and continuum variability in six bright Seyfert 1s and rapid continuum variability in 14 blazars. Among the results that could only be obtained using a large archival study is evidence that blazars show a positive correlation between degree of variability and apparent luminosity, while Seyfert 1s show an anti-correlation. This suggests that beaming dominates the ultraviolet properties for blazars, while thermal emission from an accretion disk dominates for Seyfert 1s. Our future plans include a survey of line ratios in Seyfert 1s, to be fitted with photoionization models to test the models and determine the range of temperatures, densities and ionization parameters. We will also include data from IRAS, Einstein, EXOSAT, and ground-based telescopes to measure multi-wavelength correlations and broadband spectral energy distributions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 313-314
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: We propose that turbulent mixing layers are common in the interstellar medium (ISM). Injection of kinetic energy into the ISM by supernovae and stellar winds, in combination with density and temperature inhomogeneities, results in shear flows. Such flows will become turbulent due to the high Reynolds number (low viscosity) of the ISM plasma. These turbulent boundary layers will be particularly interesting where the shear flow occurs at boundaries of hot (approximately 10(exp 6) K) and cold or warm (10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) K) gas. Mixing will occur in such layers producing intermediate-temperature gas at T is approximately equal to 10(exp 5.0) - 10(exp 5.5) that radiates strongly in the optical, ultraviolet, and EUV. We have modeled these layers under the assumptions of rapid mixing down to the atomic level and steady flow. By including the effects of non-equilibrium ionization and self-photoionization of the gas as it cools after mixing, we predict the intensities of numerous optical, infrared, and ultraviolet emission lines, as well as absorption column densities of C 4, N 5, Si 4, and O 6.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 322-323
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  • 4
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    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: New photoionization models of optically thin low-density intergalactic gas at constant pressure, photoionized by QSOs, are presented. All ion stages of H, He, C, N, O, Si, and Fe, plus H2 are modeled, and the column density ratios of clouds at specified values of the ionization parameter of n sub gamma/n sub H and cloud metallicity are predicted. If Ly-alpha clouds are much cooler than the previously assumed value, 30,000 K, the ionization parameter must be very low, even with the cooling contribution of a trace component of molecules. If the clouds cool below 6000 K, their final equilibrium must be below 3000 K, owing to the lack of a stable phase between 6000 and 3000 K. If it is assumed that the clouds are being irradiated by an EUV power-law continuum typical of WSOs, with J0 = 10 exp -21 ergs/s sq cm Hz, typical cloud thicknesses along the line of sight that are much smaller than would be expected from shocks, thermal instabilities, or gravitational collapse are derived.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 383; 511-523
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: This paper presents consistently reduced UV continuum flux densities amd spectra indices derived from all 499 usable archived IUE observations of blazars made through mid-1991. The extraction of 1D spectra and the measurement of spectral parameters are discussed. A detailed error analysis is presented, including a discussion of the difference in the calibration between the IUE long- and short-wavelength cameras. The resulting data are presented in tabular and graphical form and are available by electronic mail as well. These results will be most useful for variability studies, but can also be used to characterize the broad-band energy distributions and to compare blazar properties with those of other AGN. This is the first in a series of papers, in which extracted spectral parameters will be published for the over 4500 spectra of AGN in the IUE archives.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ISSN 0067-0049); 83; 1; p. 1-27.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: New studies are reported of a large, 2 x 5 deg peanut-shaped cavity in the far-infrared emission seen using IRAS data for the Cygnus X region. A more complete and better defined infrared supershell than reported by Lozinskaya and Repin (1990) is found and connected to the Cyg OB1 association. It is shown that the cavity represents the early stages of a superbubble produced by the winds and possible SNe from 10 to 20 massive stars. The locations and properties of these stars are used to estimate the energy deposition rate and to understand the manner in which supershells form and propagate. In Cyg OB1, spatially distributed subclustering appears to have played an important role in determining the nonspherical morphology of the superbubble.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 397; 2; p. 537-541.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: We investigate the nature of two large conical indentations in the Crab Nebula's synchrotron emission, commonly known as the east and west 'bays'. Optical images spanning nearly nine decades (1899-1988) reveal the bays to be long-lasting remnant features. Proper motions of the bays away from the remnant's center of expansion are consistent with their locations near the SN progenitor site in A.D. 1054. Based on their morphologies and polarization properties, the bays appear to be portions of a torus encircling the remnant's center of expansion. The nebular magnetic field wrapped around this torus blocks the pulsar's relativistic particles, resulting in the observed lack of synchrotron emission. We propose that this torus is the result of a presupernova disklike ejection not less than 0.1 solar mass by the Crab progenitor, similar to the ring around SN 1987 A. A 0.5 solar mass disk of He-rich filaments along the equatorial plane is probably also related to presupernova mass loss, which might explain the wide range of abundances seen among filaments.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 399; 2; p. 599-610.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: It is proposed that turbulent mixing layers are common in the ISM of the Milky Way and selected external galaxies, with many layers per kiloparsec along typical lines of sight. All of the diffuse C I 1550-A background emission and a significant fraction of the diffuse H-alpha background at high latitude can be explained by mixing layers cooling at pressure of about 3000/cu cm K. These models also produce the correct ratio of semiforbidden C IV 15500 III 1663-A emission. Only 10 percent of the disk H-alpha is likely to arise from mixing layers. The observed Galactic absorption-line column densities of C IV, N V, Si IV, and O VI are roughly consistent with mixing-layer models with an intermediate temperature of about 10 exp 5.3 K and depleted abundances.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 407; 1; p. 83-99.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: A new independent survey of the IR emission for 161 Galactic supernova remnants are presented on the basis of Skyflux image data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite. A new Galactic rotation curve with current IAU constants, R0 = 8.5 kpc and V0 = 220 km/s, is used to derive new kinematic distances for 11 of the 44 positively or possibly identified remnants. Temperature-sensitive flux ratio images are employed to help identify and define remnant emission structures and fluxes, particularly in complex regions. Of the 161 remnants examined, clear IR emission from 35 was found, with nine additional possible detections. Almost all young remnants (Tycho, Kepler, Cas A, Crab) were found to have a significant 12- and 25-micron flux, while older remnants are brightest at 60 and 100 microns. Correlations with mass and temperature indicate that older remnants are both colder and more massive, as expected from decreasing velocity. No radius-luminosity correlation was seen.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ISSN 0067-0049); 81; 2 Au
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