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• 1990-1994  (6)
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• 1
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
ISSN: 1365-246X
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Geosciences
Notes: The calculation of the uncertainty in an estimated rotation requires a parametrization of the rotation group; that is, a unique mapping of the rotation group to a point in 3-D Euclidean space, R3. Numerous parametrizations of a rotation exist, including: (1) the latitude and longitude of the axis of rotation and the angle of rotation; (2) a representation as a Cartesian vector with length equal to the rotation angle and direction parallel to the rotation axis; (3) Euler angles; or (4) unit length quaternions (or, equivalently, Cayley-Klein parameters).The uncertainty in a rotation is determined by the effect of nearby rotations on the rotated data. The uncertainty in a rotation is small, if rotations close to the best fitting rotation degrade the fit of the data by a large amount, and it is large, if only rotations differing by a large amount cause such a degradation. Ideally, we would like to parametrize the rotations in such a way so that their representation as points in R3 would have the property that the distance between two points in R3 reflects the effects of the corresponding rotations on the fit of the data. It can be shown mathematically that this is impossible, but for rotations of small angle, it can be done to close approximation by using vectors in Cartesian coordinates. Thus, we are led to parametrizing the uncertainty separately from the parametrization of the best fitting rotation. This approach results in simpler, more efficient calculations than if uncertainties are described in terms of rotation parameters (i.e., latitude, longitude, and the angle). We illustrate this with the example of equations for determining the uncertainty in a composite rotation from the uncertainties of its constituents.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 2
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
ISSN: 1365-246X
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Geosciences
Notes: A microearthquake survey was conducted in the central Andes of Peru, east of the city of Lima, to study the seismicity and style of tectonic deformation of the Peruvian Andes. Although most of the stations forming the temporary seismographic network were located on the high Andes, the vast majority of the microearthquakes recorded occurred to the east of the mountain belt: on the Huaytapallana fault in the Eastern Cordillera and beneath the western margin of the sub-Andes. Thus the sub-Andes appear to be the physiographic province subject to the most intense seismic deformation. Focal depths of the crustal events in this region range generally from 15 to 35 km and some events beneath the sub-Andes appear to be as deep as 40-50 km. The fault-plane solutions of events in the sub-Andean margin show thrust faulting on steep planes oriented roughly north-south, similar to that observed in teleseismic earthquakes studied using body wave modelling. The Huaytapallana fault in the Cordillera Oriental also shows relatively high seismicity along a NE-SW trend that agrees with the fault scarp and the east-dipping nodal plane of two large earthquakes that occurred on this fault on 1969 July 24 and October 1. Microearthquakes of intermediate depth recorded during the experiment show a flat seismic zone about 25 km thick at a depth of about 100 km. This agrees with recent observations showing that beneath Peru the slab first dips at an angle of about 30° to a depth of 100 km and then flattens following a quasi-horizontal trajectory. Fault-plane solutions of intermediate-depth microearthquakes have horizontal T axes oriented east-west suggesting slab pull is the dominant force in the downgoing slab.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 3
Unknown
In:  Other Sources
Publication Date: 2019-07-12
Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
Type: Geophysical Journal International (ISSN 0955-419X); 103; 1-12
Format: text
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• 4
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Oxford University Press
Publication Date: 1990-10-01
Print ISSN: 0956-540X
Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
Topics: Geosciences
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• 5
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Oxford University Press
Publication Date: 1990-06-01
Print ISSN: 0956-540X
Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
Topics: Geosciences
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• 6
Unknown
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Publication Date: 1993-01-01
Print ISSN: 0096-3941
Electronic ISSN: 2324-9250
Topics: Geosciences
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