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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Keywords: 210Pb dating ; Lead ; Sediments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Two sediment cores (BO90/13b and BO90/17b) from Lake Constance were investigated byγ-spectrometry for210Pb,134Cs,137Cs,241Am,234Th, and other members of the238U decay chain. The sediments were dated using the constant-flux model for210Pb, and accumulation rates were determined. These range from 0.04 to 0.65g/cm 2/yr (BO90/13b) and 0.04 to 0.8g/cm 2/yr (BO90/17b), respectively. The mean accumulation rate amounts to 0.16g/cm 2/yr for both cores. The cores had already been dated by lamination counting and reconstruction of high-water events at the Limnological Institute at Constance, so that a very precise time scale was available. Both ages derived are in agreement within statistical error up to 1900, which means dating with the constant-flux model for210Pb was confirmed up to that age. The position of the maxima of bomb cesium and americium confirm the stratigraphic and210Pb datings. With241Am a further radioactive isotope is available, which can, due to the half-life of241Pu (t 1/2=14.4yr) be detected now byγ-spectrometry and can serve as an additional time indicator, the maximum being dated at 1963. By applying the various time scales, the depth profiles of stable lead and zinc of core BO90/13b were dated. Both heavy metals show a very significant maximum located beneath the layer of the maxima of bomb cesium and americium, showing that these maxima are older than those of the bomb isotopes. It is remarkable in this context that the maximum of zinc concentration occurs a little later than that of stable lead. Similar concentration profiles are observable in core BO90/17b and other, older sediment cores (CS6-CS10) on a transect across the lake. In contrast to a former assumption, the depth profile of stable lead in Lake Constance sediments does not reflect the anthropogenic gasoline lead emissions into the atmosphere for Germany, their maximum being dated at 1971.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 32.80.Fb ; 07.75+h
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Here we describe experiments aimed at developing an element-selective ion source for thorium (Th). The technique applied is resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) with a thermal atom beam. Ionization schemes for isotopically nonselective ionization of Th as well as for isotopically selective ionization of 230Th are proposed. The RIS-scheme used is two-photon two-colour ionization with excitation in the ultraviolet spectral range between 244 nm and 267 nm or in the visible spectral range between 485 nm and 529 nm. Ionization of the excited atoms is performed either by ultraviolet photons or by visible photons, depending on the energy required for this process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 5 (5). pp. 811-821.
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: Profiles of the 230Th concentration in Mn crusts from the central Pacific Ocean measured at extremely high depth resolution reveal that the growth rates of Mn crusts are influenced by climate. Based on a “constant flux model” the sections of maximum 230Th concentration correspond to periods of slow growth during glacial stages. Fast growth occurred during interglacial stages 1, 5, and 7, probably due to a larger supply of Mn oxides from the water column. High-resolution profiles of 230Th and 10Be in sediment cores from high biological productivity areas display radioisotope maxima in the interglacial stages and minima during glacial periods, the ratio of the fluxes of 10Be/230Th being ≥4. The only exceptions are observed at 135 and 270 kyr B.P., where the ratio of the fluxes is as low as 0.1 to 0.3. We presume that this “230Th anomaly” reflects short periods of time at the end of glacials when precipitation of MnO2 occurred. This hypothesis is confirmed by peaks of Mn observed in sediment cores mainly at the transitions from glacial to interglacial stages. The standing crops of Mn in these layers suggest release of Mn2+ from the sediments during glacial stages and buildup of Mn in the water column to concentrations of up to 10 µmol/L.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: The 10Be records of four sediment cores forming a transect from the Norwegian Sea at 70°N (core 23059) via the Fram Strait (core 23235) to the Arctic Ocean at 86°N (cores 1533 and 1524) were measured at a high depth resolution. Although the material in all the cores was controlled by different sedimentological regimes, the 10Be records of these cores were superimposed by glacial/interglacial changes in the sedimentary environment. Core sections with high 10Be concentrations ( 〉 1 · 109 at/g) are related to interglacial stages and core sections with low10Be concentrations ( 〈 0.5 · 109 at/g) are related to glacial stages. Climatic transitions (e.g., Termination II, 5/6) are marked by drastic changes in the 10Be concentrations of up to one order of magnitude. The average 10Be concentrations for each climatic stage show an inverse relationship to their corresponding sedimentation rates, indicating that the 10Be records are the result of dilution with more or less terrigenous ice-rafted material. However, there are strong changes in the 10Be fluxes (e.g., Termination II) into the sediments which may also account for the observed oscillations. Most likely, both processes affected the 10Be records equally, amplifying the contrast between lower (glacials) and higher (interglacials) 10Be concentrations. The sharp contrast of high and low 10Be concentrations at climatic stage boundaries are an independent proxy for climatic and sedimentary change in the Nordic Seas and can be applied for stratigraphic dating (10Be stratigraphy) of sediment cores from the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-02-27
    Description: Biogenic particle fluxes from highly productive surface waters, boundary scavenging, and hydrothermal activity are the main factors influencing the deposition of radionuclides in the area of the Galapagos microplate, eastern Equatorial Pacific. In order to evaluate the importance of these three processes throughout the last 100 kyr, concentrations of the radionuclides 10Be, 230Th, and 231Pa, and of Mn and Fe were measured at high resolution in sediment samples from two gravity cores KLH 068 and KLH 093. High biological productivity in the surface waters overlying the investigated area has led to 10Be and 231Pa fluxes exceeding production during at least the last 30 kyr and probably the last 100 kyr. However, during periods of high productivity at the up welling centers off Peru and extension of the equatorial high-productivity zone, a relative loss of 10Be and 231Pa may have occurred in these sediment cores because of boundary scavenging. The effects of hydrothermal activity were investigated by comparing the 230Thex concentrations to the Mn/Fe ratios and by comparing the fluxes of 230Th and 10Be which exceed production. The results suggest an enhanced hydrothermal influence during isotope stages 4 and 5 and to a lesser extent during isotope stage 1 in core KLH 093. During isotope stages 2 and 3, the hydrothermal supply of Mn was deposited elsewhere, probably because of changes in current regime or deep water oxygenation. A strong increase of the Mn/Fe ratio at the beginning of climatic stage 1 which is not accompanied by an increase of the 230Thex concentration is interpreted to be an effect of Mn remobilization and reprecipitation in the sediment.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-18
    Description: Biogenic particle fluxes from highly productive surface waters, boundary scavenging, and hydrothermal activity are the main factors influencing the deposition of radionuclides in the area of the Galapagos microplate, eastern Equatorial Pacific. In order to evaluate the importance of these three processes throughout the last 100 kyr, concentrations of the radionuclides 10Be, 230Th, and 231Pa, and of Mn and Fe were measured at high resolution in sediment samples from two gravity cores KLH 068 and KLH 093. High biological productivity in the surface waters overlying the investigated area has led to 10Be and 231Pa fluxes exceeding production during at least the last 30 kyr and probably the last 100 kyr. However, during periods of high productivity at the up welling centers off Peru and extension of the equatorial high-productivity zone, a relative loss of 10Be and 231Pa may have occurred in these sediment cores because of boundary scavenging. The effects of hydrothermal activity were investigated by comparing the 230Thex concentrations to the Mn/Fe ratios and by comparing the fluxes of 230Th and 10Be which exceed production. The results suggest an enhanced hydrothermal influence during isotope stages 4 and 5 and to a lesser extent during isotope stage 1 in core KLH 093. During isotope stages 2 and 3, the hydrothermal supply of Mn was deposited elsewhere, probably because of changes in current regime or deep water oxygenation. A strong increase of the Mn/Fe ratio at the beginning of climatic stage 1 which is not accompanied by an increase of the 230Thex concentration is interpreted to be an effect of Mn remobilization and reprecipitation in the sediment.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Springer-Verlag
    In:  In: Constraints on the Ocean's Role in Global Change. , ed. by Zahn, R. and et al., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-New York-Tokyo, pp. 87-104.
    Publication Date: 2012-01-27
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    Springer
    In:  Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 1990,4 . Springer, Berlin, 31 pp. ISBN 3-540-52364-2
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Naturwissenschaften 77 (1990), S. 428-430 
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
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    In:  [Talk] In: 4. International Conference on Paleoceanography (ICP IV), 21.09.-25.09.1992, Kiel .
    Publication Date: 2014-05-26
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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