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  • 1990-1994  (9)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Anaerobic ; bamboo ; support material ; wastewater treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The changes in 2.5-cm thick bamboo rings during their use as a support material in an anaerobic reactor show that the wash out and degradation processes are largely completed within 6 months to a year. The dry mass of the bamboo used decreased more quickly in the first half of the year than during the second half and asymptotically approached a loss limit of approximately 15% (w/w). The decrease in substances contained in the bamboo during the 2-year experimental period led to reductions in wall thickness of the rings of 0.8 mm and in the absorbable pressure of 21%. Bamboo thus appears to be suitable for long-term use in an anaerobic reactor.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 56 (1990), S. 2578-2580 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Using a capacitively controlled force microscope we have imaged typical domain wall configurations like 90° closure structures and subdivided 180° wall segments in single-crystal iron whiskers. Differences in wall contrast between 90° and 180° domain walls are clearly observed. The effect of tip-to-sample distance on lateral resolution and wall contrast in magnetic force microscopy is shown.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 62 (1993), S. 1839-1841 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Electron holography is applied to the investigation of the leakage magnetic field produced by sharp ferromagnetic probes employed for magnetic force microscopy. Using the double exposure technique, interference fringes were obtained which show a good qualitative agreement with calculations based on a macroscopic dipole model for the sensor tips. Magnetic flux measurements are possible through the evaluation of the phase difference in the simulated map of the dipole field.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 57 (1990), S. 2351-2353 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope spatial variations of the current-voltage characteristics have been investigated on NbSe2 single crystals employing PtIr and ferromagnetic Ni tips. At 4.2 K a clear superconducting energy gap is visible even when tunneling through the Ni tip. After field-induced transfer of the sample into the superconducting mixed state a complete Abrikosov flux lattice is imaged for both types of probes by recording the tunneling current at a fixed voltage within the superconducting gap. Comparison of the images obtained by the two probe materials clearly shows that no distortion of the flux lattice is produced by magnetostatic interactions between the ferromagnetic tip and the individual vortices. This provides the basis for future investigations of flux distributions in superconductors by magnetic force microscopy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 57 (1990), S. 2612-2614 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Quantitative image interpretation in magnetic force microscopy requires information about the geometric and magnetic configuration of the employed microprobe. If the magnetic microfield of a given sample is known in detail, a calibration of the probe is possible. Using the well-defined current-induced microfield of a nanolithographically structured conducting pattern, calibration measurements combined with model calculations provide an insight into the effective domain configuration of magnetic force microscopy probes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 75.30 Pd ; 61.16 Di ; 75.25 tz ; 75.50 El
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We report on recent developments in the field of STM performed with magnetic probes and samples. The choice of appropriate magnetic sensors and their in situ preparation will be described. We further focus on the information obtained in spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM) as well as on possible modes of operation for simultaneous acquisition of topographic and magnetic data. The prospects for SPSTM and related magnetic sensitive SXM techniques will be discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 59 (1994), S. 41-48 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 61.16. Di ; 74.20. Fg ; 74.50. +r ; 74.60. Ec
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The current status of scanning probe microscopy on superconductors is briefly reviewed. Both tunneling and force microscopy have clearly become valuable tools for topographic surface characterization of superconductors. They have especially contributed to our understanding of growth mechanisms, morphology and surface properties of high-temperature superconductors. Furthermore, scanning tunneling spectroscopy on some special model-type conventional superconductors has provided completely new insight into fundamentals of superconductivity. In the latter respect only moderate success has yet been met for all technically relevant materials and especially for the ceramic materials due to surface quality problems. Very recent results show that magnetic force microscopy may be capable of imaging flux lines in superconductors, even if the surface is non-ideal. Flux-line imaging has already been achieved by employing scanning field probes. Some concrete future challenges concerning the application of scanning probe techniques to the study of superconducting materials and superconductivity are discussed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 109 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The hybridization barriers of interspecific lupin crosses were determined by histological investigations. The cross Lupinus hartwegii×L. mutabilis (both of American origin) revealed embryos in the cotyledonary stage as well as cellular endosperm. In the reciprocal combination, L. mutabilis×L. harwegii, embryo development stopped at the end of the globular stage, and simultaneously the coenocytic endosperm did no differentiate into the cellular state. In the combination L. luteus (European origin) ×L. hartwegii, embryo as well as endosperm development were initiated. Embryo development ended at any early globular stage. Twelve days after pollination the coenocytic endosperm had almost degenerated. With L. hartwegii as the female, no pollen germination could be observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 61 (1990), S. 2538-2541 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Improved electrochemical techniques for the reproducible fabrication of sharp metallic tips are presented. Radii of curvature down to 10 nm make the tips particularly suitable for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additionally, simple methods are developed for preparing AFM cantilevers. A new type of spherical probe suitable for long-range scanning force microscopy has been fabricated. The probes consist of nearly perfect spheres with adjustable radii between about 50 and several 100 nm deposited at the very tip of tiny probe holders. Both probe and probe holder may consist of any metal. First experimental investigations confirm that the spherical probes are particularly suitable for van der Waals and magnetic force microscopy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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