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  • 1990-1994  (15)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) will populate excited levels of atomic and molecular species when the energy separations involved are not too different from the CMBR peak frequency. The first measurement of the local CMBR temperature was in fact made using this method5 with fine ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 354 (1991), S. 460-461 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The B-band galaxy number counts rise rapidly with magnitude at least to B ~ 26, at which point the cumulative galaxy density is ~3 x 105 per square degree (refs 1,2). Comparison with a numerical model that assumes no luminosity evolution in the galaxy population and an invariant ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 371 (1994), S. 493-495 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Existing optical CCD (charge-coupled device) studies of the low-mass stellar content of the Galactic halo suggest that low-mass luminous stars are not a major contributor to the mass of the luminous stellar halo, to mass limits of 0.14 solar masses (0.14M0 ; ref. 8). Limits based on optical plate ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 368 (1994), S. 599-604 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Measurements of the deuterium abundance in the early Universe provide a sensitive test of the 'standard' Big Bang cosmology. The probable detection of deuterium absorption by a gas cloud between us and a distant quasar suggests an abundance much greater than estimated from observations in the ...
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Redshifts and K magnitudes have been obtained for a small but complete sample of 22 galaxies with B magnitudes down to 24. In the luminosity range B = 23-24, the B-band galaxy counts are dominated by a population of small blue galaxies at z roughly 0.25, which may collectively contain as much baryonic matter as the normal galaxies. It is possible either that these earlier galaxies have undergone merging to create the present galaxy population, or that they represent a quite different galactic population which has now faded or disappeared. Either possibility has considerable implications for understanding of galaxy formation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 354; 460
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The absence of any continuous Ly-alpha opacity from the intergalactic medium at z = 3-4.5 can be understood if a significant population of star-forming galaxies is present at these redshifts. It is shown that such galaxies can be present within the galaxy populations at B = 22 to 27. The expected ionization produced during galaxy formation is analyzed in terms of highly model-independent metal production arguments and it is concluded that (if such galaxies are dust-free and transparent to ionizing photons) then at least 4(H0/50 km/s Mpc)-cubed percent of galaxy formation would have to have occurred in this redshift range.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 348; 371-377
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The results of a K-band deep-imaging survey, with a 5 sigma limit of K = 21.4 for galaxy detection, are reported. Number counts from K = 16.5 to K = 21.25 are given. Comparison with optical survey data on the field shows objects as red as (I-K) = 5 which most probably correspond to high-redshift (z of about 2) normal galaxies. No evidence is seen for any population of high-z protogalaxies or brown dwarfs. The results are placed in the context of extragalactic background light measurements.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 360; L1-L5
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: We present the results of a very deep K-band survey with a 5 sigma total galaxy magnitude limit of K = 21.9 in the deepest field. A 5 sigma K-band-selected sample of 123 galaxies is presented, together with their optical colors. Only three galaxies in this sample are not detected at the 1 sigma level in Kron-Cousins I band. At K less than or = 20 the reddest (I-K) color is 5.1 +/- 0.4, and 15 of the 123 objects in the deep field sample have (I-K) greater than 4. In the blue, the galaxies show a rapid blueward trend at magnitudes beyond K = 19, dropping from a median (B-K) = 6 at K = 18 to a median (B-K) of only 4.2 at K = 21.5. The surface density of (I-K) greater than 4 objects is interpreted to imply either that there is a significant evolution toward later types in the colors of the normal galaxy population beyond z = 11 or that galaxies have faded by that redshift.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 434; 1; p. 114-127
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: We present spectra and multicolor (B, I, K) data for near-infrared (K) selected spatially complete magnitude limited (K is less than 20) galaxy samples from the Hawaii Survey. The redshift indentification of the sample of 298 galaxies is substantially complete to a B magnitude of 26 and an I magnitude of 22.5, and identification of observed galaxies ranges from nearly 100% completeness at K is less than 18 to approximately 70% completeness at K = 19-20. We note that many of the unidentified objects appear to be red (I-K) objects which are flat in the optical and spectroscopically featureless. Strengths of spectral-line features and breaks are tabulated for the 262 galaxies with reasonably secure redshifts. The measured redshifts may nearly all fall at z is less than or approximately 1, with the exception of a compact absorption-line object at z = 2.35. At K is less than or equal to 18, the redshift distribution is well fitted by a model with no luminosity evolution, implying that from the K-band Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant can vary at most by 10% over the redshift range from z approximately 0.025 to 0.25, and that positive luminosity evolution at any significant level between z = 0 and z = 1 is ruled out. However, the evolution of both the emission-line strengths and the 4000 A break indicates that galaxies were undergoing significantly more star formation at z = 1 than at the present time.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal (ISSN 0067-0049); 94; 2; p. 461-515
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: During the course of the Hawaii K-band (2.1 micrometer) survey we have detected a compact object, Hawaii 167, lying at a redshift of 2.33, in which are seen both low- and high-ionization absorption lines. In the near-infrared we see broad H alpha emission at a redshift of 2.35 but do not detect the other Balmer lines, (O II) lambda 3727, or (O III) lambda 5007. The absence of strong Mg II or C IV emission in the rest ultraviolet suggests that, at these wavelengths, we may be seeing a poststarburst galaxy rather than a quasar. Indeed, this class of object may be common enough to represent a major episode of galaxy formation, possibly the formation of the spheroids. However, Q0059-2735, the most extreme member of the class of Mg II absorbing broad absorption line quasars, is very similar to the present object, and there may be an evolutionary sequence or some other close connection between Hawaii 167 and the broad absorption line quasars.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 432; 2; p. L83-L86
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