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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 53 (1993), S. S75 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Microdamage ; Remodeling ; Fatigue ; Osteoporosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary This paper reviews the direct and indirect evidence for and against the idea that bone remodeling repairs fatigue damage. It defines experiments that should be performed to determine whether the accumulation and repair of fatigue damage is relevant to the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fracture. The experimental evidence favors the hypothesis that microdamage evokes local remodeling. The data suggest that the balance between the microdamage burden and bone repair is nearly constant. The indirect evidence comes from clinical observations that show positive relationships between depressed bone formation rate or prolonged remodeling period with bone fracture. More compelling indirect evidence comes from studies in which bone remodeling was pharmaceutically depressed, and fracture incidence rose in direct proportion. Data on microdamage accumulation were not collected in these studies. Conversely, some experimental evidence disputes a direct relationship between fatigue microdamage and repair. In these studies, increased amounts of bone microdamage in hyperadrenocortical dogs, and in irradiated dogs, could not be demonstrated even though bone fragility increased without associated osteopenia. Finally, the indirect evidence that argues that microdamage does not initiate repair is based on inference and does not provide an adequate test of the hypothesis. In balance, the current body of evidence favors the contention that bone remodeling repairs fatigue damage and thereby prevents fracture. Future studies should verify that microdamage accumulates when bone fracture occurs in conjunction with depressed remodeling activation frequency.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Acoustic microscopy ; Bone ; Collagen fiber ; Elastic anisotropy ; Mineral crystal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract It has long been thought that collagen fibers within the bone matrix are deposited in an aligned pattern that channels mineral growth. If this model of bone structure is correct, both organic and inorganic phases of bone should have similar elastic anisotropy. Using an acoustic microscope, we measured longitudinal and transverse acoustic velocities of cortical specimens taken from 10 dog femurs before and after removal of either the mineral (using 10% EDTA) or collagen phases (using 7% sodium hypochlorite) and calculated longitudinal (CL) and transverse (CT) elastic coefficients. The anisotropy ratio (CL/CT) decreased significantly after demineralization (1.61 before versus 1.06 after, P〈0.0001, paired t-test). However, there was no significant change after decollagenization (1.51 before versus 1.48 after, P=0.617, paired t-test). We conclude that the orientation of mineral crystals is the primary determinant of bone anisotropy, and the collagen matrix within osteonal bone has little directional orientation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey was conducted to determine the distribution and determinants of environmental and blood lead levels near a conventional and several cottage lead smelters and to assess the relationship between environmental and blood lead levels in a tropical, developing-country setting. Fifty-eight households were studied in the Red Pond community, the site of the established smelter and several backyard smelters, and 21 households were studied in the adjacent, upwind Ebony Vale community in Saint Catherine Parish, Jamaica. Households were investigated, using questionnaires, soil and housedust lead measurements, and blood lead (PbB) measurements from 372 residents. Soil lead levels in Red Pond exceeded 500 parts per million (ppm) at 24% of households (maximum-18,600 ppm), compared to 0% in Ebony Vale (maximum 150 ppm). Geometric mean PbB in Red Pond, where 44% of children 〈6 years of age had PbB levels ≥ 25 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL), was more than twice that Ebony Vale in all age groups (p 〈 0.0005). Within Red Pond, proximity to backyard smelters and to the conventional smelter were independent predictors of soil lead (p 〈 0.05). Soil lead was the strongest predictor of PbB among Red Pond subjects under 12 years of age. The blood lead-soil lead relationship in children differed from that reported in developed countries; blood lead levels were higher than expected for the household-specific soil lead levels that were observed. These data indicate that cottage lead smelters, like conventional ones, are a hazard for nearby residents and that children exposed to lead contamination in tropical, developing countries may be at higher risk for developing elevated blood lead levels than similarly-exposed children in developed countries.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Saprolegnia ; Lectins ; Concanavalin A ; Wheat germ agglutinin ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Ultrastructure ; Pathogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The importance of the surface structure and chemistry in zoospores and cysts of oomycetes is briefly reviewed and the organelle systems associated with encystment described. The surface structure and chemistry of primary and secondary zoospores and cysts ofSaprolegnia diclina (a representative saprophytic species) andS. parasitica (a representative salmonid fish pathogen) were explored using the lectins concanavilin A (Con A) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against a mixed zoospore and cyst suspension ofS. parasitica. The binding of lectins and antibodies to spores was determined using immunofluorescence microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled probes and with electron microscopy with gold-conjugated probes applied to spore suspensions post-fixation. In both species Con A, which is specific for glucose and mannose sugars, bound to both the surface of primary and secondary zoospores (the surface glycocalyx) and their cyst coats and readily induced zoospore encystment. The binding to the cysts appeared to be mainly associated with the matrix material released from the primary and secondary encystment vesicles and which appeared to diminish with time. No binding to germ tube walls was observed with this lectin. The MAb labelling showed a generally similar binding pattern to the primary and secondary cysts to that observed with Con A, although the binding to zoospores was more variable. Primary zoospores bound the antibodies but secondary zoospores appeared less reactive. It is suggested that the MAbs share a common epitope with one or more of the Con A-binding components. In both species WGA, which is specific for amongst other things the sugar N-acetyl glucosamine, bound to localised apical patches on the primary zoospores. This lectin also binds to the ventral groove region of secondary zoospores ofS. diclina, which were induced to encyst by this lectin. In contrast secondary zoospores ofS. parasitica were not induced to encyst by the addition of WGA and showed a patchy dorsal binding with this lectin. WGA also binds to both the inner wall of discharged primary cysts and the young germ tube walls of both species. These observations are discussed both in relation to other oomycete spores and to their possible functional and ecological significance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 357 (1992), S. 273-273 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - Many readers not familiar with the structure of Italian universities may be confused by the recent controversy aired in these columns1"5. As a foreigner (Australian) with several years experience of Italian academic life, I am perhaps well placed to try to explain some of the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 371 (1994), S. 511-513 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We measured contrast sensitivity to horizontal gratings of various spatial frequencies, briefly presented during large voluntary horizontal saccades. As the saccades ran parallel to the bars of the gratings, they produced no effective image motion. The gratings were modulated sinusoidally either in ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A method of insertional mutagenesis for naturally transformable organisms has been adapted from Haemophilus influenzae and applied to the study of the pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni. A series of kanamycin-resistant Insertional mutants of C. jejuni 81–176 has been generated and screened for loss of ability to invade INT407 cells. Eight noninvasive mutants were identified which showed 18-200-fold reductions in the level of invasion compared with the parent. Three of these eight show defects in motility, and five are fully motile. The three mutants with motility defects were further characterized to evaluate the method. One mutant, K2–32, which is non-adherent and non-invasive, has an insertion of the kanamycin-resistance cassette into the flaA flagellin gene and has greatly reduced motility and a truncated flagellar filament typical of flaA mutants. The adherent non-invasive mutants K2–37 and K2–55 are phenotypically paralysed, i.e. they have a full-length flagellar filament but are non-motile. All three mutants show an aberration in flagellar structure at the point at which the filament attaches to the cell. Mutants K2–37 and K2–55 represent overlapping deletions affecting the same gene, termed pflA (paralysed flagella). This gene encodes a predicted protein of 788 amino acid residues and a molecular weight of 90 977 with no significant homology to known proteins. Site-specific insertional mutants into this open reading frame result in the same paralysed flagellar phenotype and the same invasion defects as the original mutants.
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  • 9
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    Unknown
    Boston : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Business History Review. 68:2 (1994:Summer) 317 
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-4804
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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