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  • 1990-1994  (2)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The effects of the atmosphere and surface on sunlight backscattered to space by the ocean may be substantially reduced by using the unpolarized component of reflectance instead of total reflectance. At 450 nm, a wavelength of interest in ocean color remote sensing, and for typical conditions, 45% of the unpolarized reflectance may originate from the water body instead of 20% of the total reflectance, which represents a gain of a factor 2.2 in useful signal for water composition retrieval. The best viewing geometries are adjacent to the glitter region; they correspond to scattering angles around 100 deg, but they may change slightly depending on the polarization characteristics of the aerosols. As aerosol optical thickness increases, the atmosphere becomes less efficient at polarizing sunlight, and the enhancement of the water body contribution to unpolarized reflectance is reduced. Since the perturbing effects are smaller on unpolarized reflectance, at least for some viewing geometries, they may be more easily corrected, leading to a more accurate water-leaving signal and, therefore, more accurate estimates of phytoplankton pigment concentration.
    Type: CNES, Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing; p 665-674
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The clear-sky greenhouse effect response to a sea surface temperature (SST or Ts) change is studied using outgoing clear-sky longwave radiation measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Considering geographical distributions for July 1987, the relation between the SST, the greenhouse effect (defined as the outgoing infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases), and the precipitable water vapor content (W), estimated by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, is analyzed first. A fairly linear relation between W and the normalized greenhouse effect g, is found. On the contrary, the SST dependence of both W and g exhibits nonlinearities with, especially, a large increase for SST above 25 C. This enhanced sensitivity of g and W can be interpreted in part by a corresponding large increase of atmospheric water vapor content related to the transition from subtropical dry regions to equatorial moist regions. Using two years of data (1985 and 1986), the normalized greenhouse effect sensitivity to the sea surface temperature is computed from the interannual variation of monthly mean values.
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 4; 1162-116
    Format: text
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