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  • 1
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    In:  J. Geophys. Res., Heidelberg, 1, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 17441-17457, pp. 8010, (ISBN: 0534351875, 2nd edition)
    Publication Date: 1990
    Keywords: Nuclear explosion ; Attenuation ; CRUST ; Shear waves ; JGR
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  • 2
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    In:  J. Geophys. Res., New York, August, vol. 96, no. 3-4, pp. 16495-16508, pp. 1610, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1991
    Keywords: Seismology ; JGR
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  • 3
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    In:  Geophys. Res. Lett., New York, August, vol. 19, no. 3-4, pp. 1579-1582, pp. 1610, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1992
    Keywords: Seismology ; Moment tensor ; Induced seismicity ; GRL
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  • 4
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    In:  Pageoph, New York, August, vol. 139, no. 3-4, pp. 781-800, pp. 1610, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1992
    Keywords: Moment tensor ; Seismology ; Induced seismicity ; Rock bursts (see also ERDSTOSS and GEBIRGSSCHLAG) ; ERDSTOSS (see also rockburst and Gebirgsschlag) ; GEBIRGSSCHLAG (see also rockburst and Erdstoss)
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  • 5
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    In:  Pageoph, New York, August, vol. 142, no. 3-4, pp. 467-490, pp. 1610, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1994
    Keywords: Laboratory measurements ; Induced seismicity ; Seismicity ; Acoustic emission
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 142 (1994), S. 467-489 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Stick-slip friction ; mining-induced earthquakes ; seismic efficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Although laboratory stick-slip friction experiments have long been regarded as analogs to natural crustal earthquakes, the potential use of laboratory results for understanding the earthquake source mechanism has not been fully exploited because of essential difficulties in relating seismographic data to measurements made in the controlled laboratory environment. Mining-induced earthquakes, however, provide a means of calibrating the seismic data in terms of laboratory results because, in contrast to natural earthquakes, the causative forces as well as the hypocentral conditions are known. A comparison of stick-slip friction events in a large granite sample with mining-induced earthquakes in South Africa and Canada indicates both similarities and differences between the two phenomena. The physics of unstable fault slip appears to be largely the same for both types of events. For example, both laboratory and mining-induced earthquakes have very low seismic efficiencies $$\eta = \tau _a /\bar \tau$$ where τ a is the apparent stress and $$\bar \tau$$ is the average stress acting on the fault plane to cause slip; nearly all of the energy released by faulting is consumed in overcoming friction. In more detail, the mining-induced earthquakes differ from the laboratory events in the behavior of η as a function of seismic momentM 0. Whereas for the laboratory events η≃0.06 independent ofM 0, η depends quite strongly onM 0 for each set of induced earthquakes, with 0.06 serving, apparently, as an upper bound. It seems most likely that this observed scaling difference is due to variations in slip distribution over the fault plane. In the laboratory, a stick-slip event entails homogeneous slip over a fault of fixed area. For each set of induced earthquakes, the fault area appears to be approximately fixed but the slip is inhomogeneous due presumably to barriers (zones of no slip) distributed over the fault plane; at constant $$\bar \tau$$ , larger events correspond to largerτ a as a consequence of fewer barriers to slip. If the inequality τ a / $$\bar \tau$$ ≤ 0.06 has general validity, then measurements of τ a =µE a /M 0, where μ is the modulus of rigidity andE a is the seismically-radiated energy, can be used to infer the absolute level of deviatoric stress at the hypocenter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 139 (1992), S. 781-800 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Induced seismicity ; earthquake source mechanism ; implosive moment tensor component
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Ground motions, recorded both underground and on the surface in two of the South African Gold mining districts, were inverted to determine complete moment tensors for 10 mining-induced tremors in the magnitude range 1.9 to 3.3. The resulting moment tensors fall into two separate categories. Seven of the events involve substantial coseismic volumetric reduction-ΔV together with normal faulting entailing shear deformation ΣAD, where the summation is over fault planes of areaA and average slipD. For these events the ratio-ΔV/ΣAD ranges from 0.58 to 0.92, with an average value of 0.71. For the remaining three events ΔV is not significantly different from zero; these events are largely double-couple sources involving normal faulting. Surprisingly, the two types of source mechanism appear to be very distinct in that there is not a continuous distribution of the source mix from ΔV=0 to-ΔV≈ΣAD. Presumably, the coseismic closure indicates substantial interaction between a mine stope and adjacent shear failure in the surrounding rock, under the influence of an ambient stress for which the maximum principal stress is oriented vertically.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
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    Birkhäuser
    In:  Basel, 460 pp., Birkhäuser, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 65-66, (ISBN 0-19-850694-5)
    Publication Date: 1993
    Keywords: Induced seismicity ; Seismicity ; Mining geophysics ; GEBIRGSSCHLAG (see also rockburst and Erdstoss) ; ERDSTOSS (see also rockburst and Gebirgsschlag) ; Rock bursts (see also ERDSTOSS and GEBIRGSSCHLAG) ; Handbook of geophysics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1991-10-01
    Description: Following the Loma Prieta earthquake, the U.S. Geological Survey installed four portable digital seismic recorders at the San Francisco International Airport (SFO) for one week to study aftershock ground motion at this important Bay area "lifeline". This study was motivated largely by the need to anticipate strong ground motion from future major earthquakes affecting the Bay area and, to a lesser extent, by the fact that SFO was shut down for 13 hours owing to damage from the Loma Prieta shock. Accordingly, the recording sites were chosen so as to elucidate the effects of varying thicknesses of low-velocity surficial alluvium on the ground motion. Three large aftershocks with magnitudes ranging from 4.2 to 4.5 each produced ground motion that was recorded at all four SFO stations. One of our stations was collocated with a permanent ground motion recorder that indicated a peak horizontal velocity of 29 cm/sec and a peak horizontal acceleration of 0.33 g during the 18 October mainshock. From the aftershock data and one mainshock record, it is possible to extrapolate approximately the mainshock ground motion to other locations at SFO and, more generally, to assess the effects of low-velocity sedimentary cover, including artificial fill material, on the character of the ground motion. The main-shock ground motion recorded at the permanent station was apparently typical for most of SFO where the near-surface alluvium resulted in peak horizontal ground velocity, in the frequency band 0.1 to 3 Hz, amplified by a factor of about 2.5 relative to that recorded at bedrock sites. Observations, in the epicentral distance range 59 to 95 km, including SFO, of the moho-reflected phases PmP and SmS from the aftershocks support the hypothesis, presented elsewhere, that the phase SmS accounted for much of the peak ground motion throughout most of the San Francisco Bay area.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1994-09-01
    Description: Although laboratory stick-slip friction experiments have long been regarded as analogs to natural crustal earthquakes, the potential use of laboratory results for understanding the earthquake source mechanism has not been fully exploited because of essential difficulties in relating seismographic data to measurements made in the controlled laboratory environment. Mining-induced earthquakes, however, provide a means of calibrating the seismic data in terms of laboratory results because, in contrast to natural earthquakes, the causative forces as well as the hypocentral conditions are known. A comparison of stick-slip friction events in a large granite sample with mining-induced earthquakes in South Africa and Canada indicates both similarities and differences between the two phenomena. The physics of unstable fault slip appears to be largely the same for both types of events. For example, both laboratory and mining-induced earthquakes have very low seismic efficiencies eta = au a /¯ au where τ a is the apparent stress and ¯ au is the average stress acting on the fault plane to cause slip; nearly all of the energy released by faulting is consumed in overcoming friction. In more detail, the mining-induced earthquakes differ from the laboratory events in the behavior of η as a function of seismic moment M 0. Whereas for the laboratory events η≃0.06 independent of M 0, η depends quite strongly on M 0 for each set of induced earthquakes, with 0.06 serving, apparently, as an upper bound. It seems most likely that this observed scaling difference is due to variations in slip distribution over the fault plane. In the laboratory, a stick-slip event entails homogeneous slip over a fault of fixed area. For each set of induced earthquakes, the fault area appears to be approximately fixed but the slip is inhomogeneous due presumably to barriers (zones of no slip) distributed over the fault plane; at constant ¯ au , larger events correspond to largerτ a as a consequence of fewer barriers to slip. If the inequality τ a / ¯ au ≤ 0.06 has general validity, then measurements of τ a =µ E a / M 0, where μ is the modulus of rigidity and E a is the seismically-radiated energy, can be used to infer the absolute level of deviatoric stress at the hypocenter. ©1994 Birkhäuser Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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