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  • Articles  (42)
  • Springer  (42)
  • 1990-1994  (34)
  • 1905-1909  (8)
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  • Articles  (42)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The study distinctly shows that structural changes take place in the silicate framework during the swelling process of glasses in aqueous solutions. The presence of a modified Q3 group is evidence for the exchange of protons and sodium ions; condensation reactions also take place. Using various techniques (1H NMR, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis) it has been demonstrated that water is present in the hydrated glass not only in the form of H2O molecules and silanol groups, but also in different structures of these two species. A molar H2O:SiOH ratio was found of approximately 1:1 (in agreement with the assumption that H3O+ ions of the solution and sodium ions of the glass are exchanged and ≡ SiOH and H2O are formed from the hydroxonium ions).
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Cluster Analysis has been shown to be partially suitable for the classification of glasses. The expansion of the clusters on the Seger's diagram allows an investigation of the influence of the different glass components. Variation of the SiO2 content results in a smaller change of properties than variation of the Na2O/RO relationship. Principal Component Analysis is convenient for showing correlations between the composition of the examined glasses, the glass structure parameters, and the different electrode properties.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: glycogen phosphorylase ; alloxan-diabetes ; cardiomyocytes ; G-protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The basis for the hypersensitive response of glycogen phosphorylase to epinephrine stimulation was investigated in adult rat cardiomyocytes isolated from normal and alloxan-diabetic animals. To assess potential G-protein involvement in the response, normal and diabetic derived myocytes were incubated with either cholera or pertussis toxin prior to hormonal stimulation. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with cholera toxin resulted in a potentiated response to epinephrine stimulation whereas pertussis toxin did not affect the activation of this signaling pathway. To determine if the enhanced response of phosphorylase activation resulted from an alteration in adenylate cyclase activation, the cells were challenged with forskolin. After 3 hr in primary culture, diabetic cardiomyocytes exhibited a hypersensitive response to forskolin stimulation relative to normal cells. However, after 24 hr in culture, both normal and diabetic myocytes responded identically to forskolin challenge. The present data suggest that a cholera toxin sensitive G-protein mediates the hypersensitive response of glycogen phosphorylase to catecholamine stimulation in diabetic cardiomyocytes and this response which is present in alloxan-diabetic cells and is induced in vitro in normal cardiomyocytes is primarily due to a defect at a post-receptor site.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: rat protein phosphatase 2A ; liver ; heart ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Protein phosphatase 2A1 was purified from rat skeletal muscle and used to produce antisera to the three subunits of the holoenzyme. Affinity purified antibodies specific for the subunits of the phosphatase enzyme were found to recognize the type 2A1 and 2A2 phosphatase from rat skeletal muscle, heart, liver, brain and erythrocytes and were used to investigate the effects of diabetes on the levels of this enzyme in liver and heart. Phosphorylase phosphatase assays coupled with immunoblot analysis of fractionated rat liver and heart cytosol from normal and diabetic animals show no apparent differences in the quantity or activity of these enzymes following the induction of alloxan diabetes. When considering these results and the normal physiological concentrations of known effectors of these enzymes, it is likely that protein phosphatase 2A1 and 2A2 are not responsible for the dephosphorylation of phosphorylase a under physiological conditions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Clarkia lewisii ; exons ; gene structure ; isozymes ; phosphoglucose isomerase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The gene encoding a cytosolic isozyme of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, EC 5.3.1.9) was isolated from Clarkia lewisii, a wild flower native to California, and the structure and sequence of the entire coding region determined. PGI catalyzes an essential step in glycolysis and carbohydrate biosynthesis in plants. Spanning about 6 kb, the gene has 23 exons and 22 introns, the highest number yet reported in plants. The exons range in size from 43 to 156 nt and encode a protein of 569 amino acids. The protein is about 44–46% identical to the inferred protein sequences of pig, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All of the introns are bordered with the consensus 5′-GT...AG-3′ dinucleotides. The longest intron includes a large stem-loop structure bounded by a perfect 9 nt direct repeat. We cloned the PGI gene from a genomic library prepared from a single plant of known PGI genotype. The locus and allele of the clone were identified by matching restriction fragments to fragments from genetically defined genomic DNAs by Southern hybridization.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: SeaMARC II ; side-scan ; bathymetry ; magnetics microplates ; rift propagation ; East Pacific Rise
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Pito Rift area is the site of actively deforming oceanic lithosphere that has been primarily under extension for at least the past million years, based on kinematic reconstructions. The major morphologic features, Pito Deep and Pito Seamount, are aligned toward the Euler pole for relative motion between the Easter and Nazca plates. SeaMARC II side-scan and bathymetry data indicate that there are two general modes of faulting currently active in the Pito Rift area. One is associated with incipient rifting of old (∼3 Ma) Nazca lithosphere by large NW-SE normal faults, and the other is associated with a broad area of right-lateral transform shear between the Nazca and Easter plates. This transform shear is distributed over a broad region because of the northward growth of the East Rift and parallel tectonic rifting within the Pito Rift area. The majority of the Pito Rift area is composed of preexisting blocks of Nazca plate that are back-tilted away from Pito Deep and strike perpendicular to present and previous relative plate motions. This observation suggests that block-faulting and back-tilting are the primary mechanisms responsible for the distributed lithospheric extension, in agreement with gravity and magnetic analyses (Martinez et al., this issue). The only recent volcanic flows observed in side-scan data are from the Pito Seamount area and to the outside of the outer pseudofault of the East Rift. The significance of the young flows near the outer pseudofault is not understood. We interpret the flows extending northwest from the Pito Seamount as representing a newly formed seafloor spreading axis within the Pito Rift area. Gravity and magnetic analyses (Martinez et al., this issue) together with SeaMARC II bathymetry and side-scan data support this interpretation. Based on the tectonic evolution of the Easter microplate, we propose an evolutionary model for the formation of the Pito Rift area, where new ‘tectonic’ grabens form immediately west of the previous graben and with slightly more counterclockwise orientation. The duration and history of tectonic activity for each graben are not well constrained.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Magnetic inversion ; Bouguer anomalies ; block faulting ; modelling ; microplate ; rift propagation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present results from a SeaMARC II bathymetry, gravity, and magnetics survey of the northern end of the large-offset propagating East Rift of the Easter microplate. The East Rift is offset by more than 300 km from the East Pacific Rise and its northern end has rifted into approximately 3 Ma lithosphere of the Nazca Plate forming a broad (70–100 km) zone of high (up to 4 km) relief referred to as the Pito Rift. This region appears to have undergone distributed and asymmetric extension that has been primarily accommodated tectonically, by block faulting and tilting, and to a lesser degree by seafloor spreading on a more recently developed magmatic accretionary axis. The larger fault blocks have dimensions of 10–15 km and have up to several km of throw between adjacent blocks suggesting that isostatic adjustments occur on the scale of the individual blocks. Three-dimensional terrain corrected Bouguer anomalies, a three-dimensional magnetic inversion, and SeaMARC II backscatter data locate the recently developed magmatic axis in an asymmetric position in the western part of the rift. The zone of magmatic accretion is characterized by an axis of negative Bouguer gravity anomalies, a band of positive magnetizations, and a high amplitude magnetization zone locating its tip approximately 10 km south of the Pito Deep, the deepest point in the rift area. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies and negative magnetizations characterize the faulted area to the east of the spreading axis supporting the interpretation that this area consists primarily of pre-existing Nazca plate that has been block faulted and stretched, and that no substantial new accretion has occurred there. The wide zone of deformation in the Pito Rift area and the changing trend of the fault blocks from nearly N-S in the east to NW-SE in the west may be a result of the rapidly changing kinematics of the Easter microplate and/or may result from ridge-transform like shear stresses developed at the termination of the East Rift against the Nazca plate. The broad zone of deformation developed at the Pito Rift and its apparent continuation some distance south along the East Rift has important implications for microplate mechanics and kinematic reconstructions since it suggests that initial microplate boundaries may consist in part of broad zones of deformation characterized by the formation of lithospheric scale fault blocks, and that what appear to be pseudofaults may actually be the outer boundaries of tectonized zones enclosing significant amounts of stretched pre-existing lithosphere.
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