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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (925)
  • 1990-1994  (586)
  • 1980-1984  (300)
  • 1940-1944  (39)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: STEM ; PEELS ; HAADFI ; Nanolithography ; Super-resolution ; STM ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The Microstructural Physics group at the Cavendish Laboratory is actively involved in a considerable number of research projects which cover a broad range of materials science. In this paper, we describe briefly several such projects, with particular emphasis given to the application of parallel-detection electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) on a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to the analysis of materials such as stainless steels, catalysts, and high temperature superconductors. In addition, we describe a number of related projects that are currently being carried out in the group, particularly those which utilise and develop novel STEM imaging and analytical techniques. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: minor and major waves ; beat frequeney ; wave propagation velocity ; coiling diameter ; storage effect ; differential behaviour ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: All species of the Drosophila obscura group exhibit within-ejaculate sperm length dimorphism. The present work is a contribution to the understanding of sperm competition through a comparative study of sperm kinetic parameters in four of these species. Videomicrographic observations at 200 frames per second of sperm from males and females, out of the storage organ, prior or after storage were made. Drosophila sperm display both major and minor waves. The former is analysed by measuring coiling diameter (μm) and the latter by recording both beat frequency (s-1) and wave propagation velocity (μm·s-1). Results show that the ‘behaviour’ of short and long spermatozoa noticeably differ: short sperm kinetics remains unaltered after storage while both major and minor waves of long spermatozoa are markedly modified. Thus, evidence is provided here of a sort of “differential activation” which is assumed to result in different survival abilities of short and long sperm within the storage organ of females.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Human testis ; Cell separation ; Elutriation ; Spermatid ; Ultrastructure ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Studying biochemical events in human spermatogenesis requires separated populations of spermatogenic cells. Dissociation of these cells was performed by a Trypsin-DNAse method adapted from the technique used for rodents. Cell separation was performed by centrifugal elutriation. Seven populations were collected, one further purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation, giving nine different cell populations. The efficiency of the cell separation was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, flow cytometric DNA analysis, and electron microscopy. Five populations were enriched in spermatids: two in round spermatids (87% and 73%), another in round (52%) and elongating (44%) spermatids, another constituted by 80% elongating spermatids, and the last by 90% elongated spermatids. Two of the four remaining populations were enrichied in primary spermatocytes (74% and 54%); another population was the upper part of the Percoll gradient and constituted cytoplasmic lobes and residual bodies (89%); the last population was made up of various cells, with no specific enrichment. Electron microscopic observations revealed good preservation of the separated cells; only the flagella from elongated spermatids were lost. Furthermore, an unusual pattern of nucleoplasm distribution during stages 2-4 of spermatid differentiation was observed and its signification is discussed with regard to the shape of the human spermatozoon.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: 1,25-(OH)2D3 ; 24,25-(OH)2D3 ; matrix vesicles ; nongenomic regulation ; extracellular matrix ; alkaline phosphatase ; phospholipase A2 ; Protein kinase C ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Vitamin D metabolites appear to regulate chondrocytes and osteoblasts via a combination of genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Specificity of the nongenomic response to either 1,25-(OH)2D3 or 24, 25-(OH)2D3 may be conferred by the chemical composition of the target membrane and its fluid mosaic structure, by the presence of specific membrane receptors, or by the interaction with classic Vitamin D receptors. Nongenomic effects have been shown to include changes in membrane fluidity, fatty acid acylation and reacylation, arachidonic acid metabolism and prostaglandin production, calcium ion flux, and protein kinaase C activity. Chondrocytes metabolize 25-(OH)D3 to 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3; production of these metabolites is regulated by both growth factors and hormones and is dependent on the state of cell maturation. 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 may interact directly with extracellular matix vesicles to regulate their function in the matrix, including protease activity, resulting in matrix modefication and calcification. Isolated matrix vesicles, produced by growth zone chondrocytes, can activate latent transforming growth factor-β when incubated with exogenous 1,25-(OH)2D3. These observations suggest that nongenomic regulation of martix vesicle structure and function may be a mechanism by which mesenchymal cells, like osteoblasts and chndrocytes, may modulate events in the extracellular matrix at sites distant from the cell surace.
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  • 5
  • 6
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 4 (1981), S. 203-217 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: α-chlorohydrin ; antifertility agent ; ram ; sperm metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of the male antifertility agent, α-chlorohydrin, six of its derivatives, and glycidol were studied on the metabolism of washed ram spermatozoa in vitro with fructose as substrate. The α-chlorohydrin derivatives were the amino, the phosphorylated, and four glycol-bridge (ketal) compounds. All compounds except glycidol, in a concentration between 0.1 and 100 mM, reduced the aerobic glycolsis and/or oxidation of fructose. However, there was not a high correlation between the ability of these compounds to inhibit the metabolism of ram spermatozoa in vitro and their antifertility activity when administered to male rats. Other factors are clearly involved in their antifertility activity, eg, the concentration of the compounds in the epididymis and their conversion of either more or less spermicidal compounds in the body.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; flow cytometry ; DNA staining ; nuclear morphology ; ultrastructure ; mammals ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The morphological and ultrastructural changes that occur during preparation of porcine, bovine, and murine spermatozoa for flow cytometric quantification of the relative DNA content of the X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm populations were examined. Ejaculated spermatozoa from the boar and bull were washed using a series of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions prior to fixation, whereas the epididymal mouse spermatozoa were washed only in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Spermatozoa from all three species were then fixed in ethanol and processed for fluorochrome staining by a treatment regimen consisting of sulfhydryl reduction and proteolysis. The processed sperm nuclei were stained for DNA with the fluorochrome, 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) before quantification by flow cytometry. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs of sperm heads taken at various steps of the preparation and staining procedures show 1) that the rigorous washing procedure disrupted the plasma and outer acrosomal membranes, 2) that ethanol fixation resulted in removal of the outer membranes and disintegration of the nuclear envelope, and 3) that thiol and proteolysis treatment removed the remaining cellular organelles including the tail and rapidly induced partial decondensation of the tightly packed chromatin. Sequential micrographs showed that the nuclear matrix of all three species increased in thickness about twofold during the preparation and staining. Consequently, the harsh procedures currently used for quantitative staining of DNA for high-resolution flow cytometric analyses destroy most cellular organelles and thereby prevent simultaneous characterization of DNA content and other sperm cell constituents.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0192-253X
    Keywords: Dictyostelium discoideum ; cyclo heximide ; emetine ; protein synthesis ; mRNA accu mulation ; transcription ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: It has been established previ- ously that the maintenance of expression of pre-spore-specific genes of Dictyostelium discoideum is prevented by the translational inhibitor cyclohex- imide. The drug had no effect upon the level of transcripts of the other genes examined, prestalk-specific or cell type-nonspecific. However, the interpretation of this result is open to question, because of possible nonspecific effects of cyclo-heximide. We have now characterized the cellular specificity and temporal profiles of mRNA accumu- lation of additional Dictyostelium cDNA clones, and have examined other inhibitors of in vivo protein synthesis. Four structurally and mechanistically distinct translational inhibitors each prevented the reaccumulation of prespore transcripts in cyclic AMP-primed, disaggregated amoebae. These results establish the importance of developmental protein synthesis in the accumulation of prespore gene transcripts. Nuclear run-on transcription assays were used to learn whether protein synthesis is required primarily for mRNA synthesis or transcript stability. A transcriptional time course first demonstrated that the abundance of these cell-specific transcripts during development mirrors their rates of synthesis. Significantly, the protein synthesis requirement of the prespore genes examined also occurs at the level of mRNA transcription, implying the existence of one or more developmentally regulated transcriptional activators.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 11 (1990), S. 283-296 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: grounding currents ; ELF ; exposure assessment ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A model is presented that permits the calculation of densities of 60-Hz magnetic fields throughout a residence from only a few measurements. We assume that residential magnetic fields are produced by sources external to the house and by the residential grounding circuit. The field from external sources is measured with a single probe. The field produced by the grounding circuit is calculated from the current flowing in the circuit and its geometry. The two fields are combined to give a prediction of the total field at any point in the house. A data-acquisition system was built to record the magnitude and phase of the grounding current and the field from external sources. The model's predictions were compared with measurements of the total magnetic field at a single location in 23 houses; a correlation coefficient of .87 was obtained, indicating that the model has good predictive capability. A more detailed study that was carried out in one house permitted comparisons of measurements with the model's predictions at locations throughout the house. Again, quite reasonable agreement was found. We also investigated the temporal variability of field readings in this house. Daily magnetic field averages were found to be considerably more stable than hourly averages. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the model in creating a profile of the magnetic fields in a home.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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