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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The molecular ordering in the bulk of a low molar mass-type liquid crystalline (LC) material is visualized by examining with scanning electron microscopy LC diacrylate films, in which the low molar mass-type LC ordering is fixed by UV polymerization. Micrographs of the fracture surfaces of these films exhibit a fine texture, illustrating the presence of a layered structure in the samples. This layered structure correlates with the director orientation in LC materials aligned by surface interaction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Antibody ; coordinated expression ; genetic engineering ; protein assembly ; root ; secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To explore the feasibility of employing antibodies to obtain disease resistance against plant root pathogens, we have studied the expression of genes encoding antibodies in roots of transgenic plants. A model monoclonal antibody was used that binds to a fungal cutinase. Heavy and light chain cDNAs were amplified by PCR, fused to a signal sequence for secretion and cloned behind CaMV 35S and TR2′ promoters in a single T-DNA. The chimeric genes were cloned both in tandem and in a divergent orientation. The roots of tobacco plants transformed with these constructs produced antibodies that were able to bind antigen in an ELISA. Immunoblotting showed assembly to a full-size antibody. In addition, a F(ab′)2-like fragment was observed, which is probably formed by proteolytic processing. Both antibody species were properly targeted to the apoplast, but the full-size antibody was partially retained by the wall of suspension cells. The construct with divergent promoters showed a better performance than the construct with promoters in tandem. It directed the accumulation of functional antibodies to a maximum of 1.1% of total soluble protein, with half of the plants having levels higher than 0.35%. The high efficiency of this construct probably results from coordinated and balanced expression of light and heavy chain genes, as evidenced by RNA blot hybridization.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: lake restoration ; hydrological systems ; nutrient balance ; groundwater modelling ; water management
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The hydrological research of the Loosdrecht Lakes and their surroundings over the period 1982–1990 was based on the integrated systems approach to surface- and ground water, with respect to their quantity and quality. The description of the water systems includes an evaluation of the structure and interactions of water systems in and around the lakes since the beginning of the Holocene until recent times, focussing progressively from the regional to the local systems and from the lake complex to the individual lakes. Quantitative research concerned: monthly and annual water balances for the complex of lakes and for individual lakes; numerical two- and semi-three-dimensional groundwater flow models; field experiments on turbulence and diffusion; and experimental laboratory studies on wind-driven currents. Qualitative research concerned: behaviour of environmental isotopes in groundwater; heavy metals in lake bottom sediments; phosphorus balances of the complex of lakes and of individual lakes for the existing and the simulated conditions; and remote sensing studies for the water quality pattern recognition. The interaction between the various water systems in the area has been influenced strongly in historic and recent times by human interference on both the local and regional scales of the water resources, e.g. through the reclamation of lakes, the extraction of water for public water supply, the regional transfer of water, the agricultural and urban activities etc. Two major remedial measures have been taken thus far: construction of sewer systems, and the supply with dephosphorized water from the Amsterdam-Rhine canal. These measures resulted in a decrease of the external P-load but did not result in a significant decrease in eutrophication as yet. Scenario's to improve this situation either pertain to tackling the fundamental causes of the eutrophication or to redressing their effects. The first category includes: drastic reductions in groundwater abstraction for public supply in the Gooi catchment area of the lakes and (partial?) flooding of adjacent deep polder areas to reduce the leakage losses from the lakes (both measures aim at restoration of the water balance). The second category involves less drastic water management alternatives for lake restoration: dredging P-enriched bottom sediments; reinforced flushing during summer with dephosphorized Amsterdam-Rhine Canal water; interception and rerouting of polluted inflows from the watershed; or additional P-removal from yet untreated inflows.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Daucus (somatic embryogenesis) ; Embryogenesis (somatic) ; Peroxidase, cationic (isoenzymes) ; Protein glycosylation ; Glycoprotein secretion ; Somatic embryogenesis ; Tunicamycin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Somatic embryogenesis of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is inhibited by the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. This inhibition is reversible by the addition of correctly glycosylated glycoproteins which have been secreted into the culture medium. To identify the proteins responsible for complementation, glycoproteins present in the medium of embryo cultures were purified and tested for their activity in the tunicamycin inhibition/ complementation assay. A 38-kDa glycoprotein was purified that could restore embryogenesis to more than 50% of that in untreated controls. This 38-kDa glycoprotein was identified as a heme-containing peroxidase on the basis of its A405/A280 ratio (Reinheit Zahl or RZ) and enzyme activity. The 38-kDa peroxidase consisted of four different cationic isoenzymes of which only one or possibly two appeared active in the complementation assay. The cationic peroxidase isoenzymes from the carrot medium could be effectively replaced by cationic horseradish peroxidases which depended on their catalytic properties for their ability to restore tunicamycin-inhibited somatic embryogenesis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography ; On-line extraction ; Large volume injection ; Hexachlorocyclohexanes ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Key engineering materials Vol. 61-62 (Jan. 1992), p. 593-598 
    ISSN: 1013-9826
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
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    Hamburg: Verlag Weltarchiv | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Ostdeutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
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    Hamburg: Verlag Weltarchiv | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsvermittlung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Drug regulation and pricing have put strong pressure on the cost-benefit ratio of the innovative pharmaceutical industry. Therefore a study has been conducted in fourteen large and medium sized companies to determine some important organisational and managerial factors influencing success in pharmaceutical innovation. The study consists of structured interviews with Research Directors and questionnaires, submitted to the heads of the different research departments. The following conclusions are tentatively drawn. Firstly, the data suggest that a threshold investment of approximately $150–200 million is needed to maintain the innovative potential. Above approximately $750 million, ‘economies of scale’ seem to appear in pharmaceutical innovation. Secondly, an incremental strategy aimed at reducing the duration of the development process seems to be more successful than a radical strategy which lays more emphasis on discovery. Thirdly, pure play pharmaceuticals seem to be more successful than the pharmaceutical divisions of conglomerates. Management control, especially the way in which reorganisations are performed, is assessed more positively in pure play pharmaceuticals. Fourthly, the greater emphasis on human resources management in Anglo-American companies, in comparison to continental European companies, seems to be an important explanatory factor for their greater success on the pharmaceutical market.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 49 (1993), S. 1053-1055 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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