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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (2,912)
  • 1990-1994  (1,705)
  • 1980-1984  (1,207)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Previously observed bioactivity of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethyelene oxide)-heparin (PDMS-PEO-Hep) triblock copolymers has prompted studies of the surface and bulk character of this copolymer using angular-dependent electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ADESCA), static secondary mass spectroscopy (SIMS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Because the low-energy PDMS phase dominates surfaces of this copolymer when solvent cast under air or vacuum conditions, attempts were made to explain surface restructuring and rearrangements induced in hydrated or aqueous environments that permit surface accessibility and bioactivity of heparin moieties. Based on comparisons with PDMS, PEO, and heparin homopolymers, PEO/heparin blends, and an unheparinized PDMS-PEO diblock copolymer, PDMS-PEO-heparin demonstrates both phase-mixed and phase-separated regions in DSC analysis. During annealing cycles above the Tg values of the copolymer constituents, phase-mixed regions become increasingly phase separated and PEO enriched. TGA analysis confirmed the presence of block copolymer constituents and presented evidence of intermolecular segmental interactions, hence phase-mixing in the copolymers. ADESCA analysis indicates that the outer 5 Å of both the PDMS-PEO and PDMS-PEO-Hep copolymers is essentially pure PDMS. However, significant amounts of PEO are detected 5 to 20 Å below the surface. Static SIMS also detects the presence of PDMS at the surfaces of the PDMS-PEO and PDMS-PEO-Hep copolymers. Compositional models based on ADESCA, SIMS, and DSC data are presented for desiccated and hydrated copolymer surfaces.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-6258
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Contract electrification measurements were performed on polymeric particles containing toluenesulfonate salt. Two forms of the toluenesulfonate ion pair were studied, an ionomer, poly(styrene-co-N-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium toluenesulfonate) and a molecular salt, cetyltrimethylammonium toluenesulfonate. Both types of particles charge positive, and the ionomer produces the higher charge level. XPS analysis shows that the particles containing the ionomer have a surface salt composition that resembles the formulation composition, whereas the surface salt composition of the particles containing the molecular is significantly higher than in the formulation. The variation in the surface ion concentration is used to estimate a relative charging capacity of the salts. XPS analyses of the carriers that were used with both particles shows an S 2p signal appropriate for the toluenesulfonate anion. A mechanism for charging involving the transfer of the toluenesulfonate anion from polymer particles to the carrier is proposed.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1045-4861
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The need for alternatives to autogenous bone grafts is widely recognized. This study compared the torsional strength of canine femora 1 year after grafting with one of three forms of a collagen/hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate bone grafting material (COLLAGRAFT15), autogenous bone, or no graft. The groups were compared to each other and to the unoperated contralateral femora. Results of torsional testing were evaluated for torsional strength, torsional displacement, total energy to fracture and White fracture mode. Data analysis showed lower torsional strength of the operated vs. unoperated femora with the exception of morsellized COLLAGRAFT15 material, which had higher strength. However, the only difference in the operated groups was that the morsellized COLLAGRAFT15 had greater strength than several groups including the autogenous bone group. There was no difference found in angular displacement between any of the groups. However, there was a difference in the energy to fracture in both strip forms of the COLLAGRAFT15. The final conclusion is that in this model, grafting with COLLAGRAFT15 provided torsional properties at one year postoperatively at least equivalent to autogenous bone. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the poor solvent acetone/ethanol the viscosity of a 3% solution of 12.6% N pyro nitrocellulose is found to be related to the geometric mean of the number average and weight average molecular weights. The fractional increase in the viscosity of such a solution on the addition of lead ß-resorcylate is a function only of number average molecular weight. Once calibration has been made against osmotic pressure measurements and intrinsic viscosity, both number and weight average may be measured rapidly with an accuracy which is no less than that of the osmotic pressure and intrinsic viscosity measurements themselves.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The deterioration of polyolefin, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and polyamide films under soil burial conditions extending up to 32 months has been investigated. Based on changes in their elongation at break, the films can be ranked in order of increasing sensitivity to degradation: Polyester ≃ polypropylene 〈 low-density polyethylene ≃ high-density polyethylene 〈 nylon 6.6. The degraded nylon 6.6 and polyethylene films were characterized by infrared and luminescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by wet analysis for hydroperoxides. From a comparison with the well-known oxidative sensitivity of nylon 6.6 in oxygenated water at slightly elevated temperatures, the rapid deterioration of nylon 6.6 film during soil burial was also concluded to be an oxidative process. The somewhat smaller, but significant, embrittlement of the polyethylenes studied could not be simply explained by thermal oxidation (with only trace oxidation products detectable) or microbiological attack (deterioration being unaffected by surface activation to enhance wettability).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: It has been shown that the techniques used for estimation of diffusion-adsorption parameters in the past have certain basic flaws. New and efficient techniques for parameter estimation have been proposed. These have many advantages such as using the full concentration-time profile (rather than part of it), time saving, etc. The validity of these techniques has been demonstrated by the analysis of the data generated in our laboratory on adsorption of polyacrylamide and also the data on adsorption of dyes on chitin reported in the literature.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: polyimides. stiff, optical and dielectric properties in their films of ; optical anisotropy and chain orientation stiff polyimide thin films ; dielectric properties of stiff polyimide thin films ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Thin films of poly(p-phenylene biphenyltetracarboximide) (BPDA-PDA), prepared by thermal imidization of the precursor poly(amic acid) on substrates, have been investigated by optical waveguide, ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), infrared (IR), and dielectric spectroscopies. The polyimide films exhibit an extraordinarily large anisotropy in the refractive indices with the in-plane index n∥ = 1.806 and the out-of-plane index n⊥ = 1.589 at 1064 nm wavelength. No discernible effect of the film thickness on this optical anisotropy is found between films of ca. 2.1 and ca. 7.8 μm thickness. This large birefringence is attributed to the preferential orientation of the biphenyltetracarboximide moieties with their planes parallel to the film surface, coupled with the strong preference of BPDA-PDA chains to align along the film plane. The frequency dispersion of the in-plane refractive index n∥ is consistent with the results calculated by the Lorentz-Lorenz equation from the UV-visible spectrum exhibiting several absorption bands in the 170-500 nm region. The contribution from the IR absorption in the range 7000-400 cm,-1 computed by the Spitzer-Kleinmann dispersion relations from the measured spectra, adds ca. 0.046 to the in-plane refractive index n∥. Tilt-angle-dependent polarized IR results indicate nearly the same increase for the out-of-plane index n⊥. Application of the Maxwell relation then leads to the out-of-plane dielectric constant ε⊥ ≃ 2.7 at 1.2 × 1013 Hz, as compared with the measured value of ca. 3.0 at 106 Hz. Assuming this small difference to remain the same for the in-plane dielectric constants ε∥, we obtain a very large anisotropy in the dielectric properties of these polyimide films with the estimated in-plane dielectric constant ε∥ ≃ 3.4 at 1.2 × 1013 Hz, and ε∥ ≃ 3.7 at 106 Hz. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Optical-absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectra for solutions, suspensions, and precipitates of poly(1,6-di-p-toluene sulfonoxy-2,4-hexadiyne) in and from nitrobenzene, acetone, and chloroform are presented. These are interpreted in terms of the occurrence of two forms of the polymer chain; a quasicrystalline form with properties close to those of single crystal polymer and a chain-extended form occurring in solution and colloidal particles, with an absorption energy of about 2.5 eV (20,000 cm-1). No evidence is found for the presence of very short polymer chains in partially polymerized monomer at low conversion. The relationship of these results to those for deformed single crystals is briefly discussed.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Mean free paths for inelastic scattering (λ) of low energy electrons in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been determined by measuring Al Kα excited C 1s and Si 2s photoelectron signal intensities as a function of ellipsometrically determined thicknesses of PMMA overlayers on silicon substrates. The λ values obtained are 29 ± 4 Å for 1196 eV electrons and 33 ± 5 Å for 1328 eV electrons. These data are necessary for the quantitative analysis of the surface region of PMMA and similar polymers by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The magnitude of the λ values determined indicates that XPS measurements can provide chemical information about the surface region of polymers, such as PMMA, in the depth range of ∼6 to 100 Å. The results of this study are compared and discussed with respect to λ values determined for other organic compounds.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to identify the presence of Cu contamination on undoped semiinsulating GaAs wafer surfaces following polishing under certain conditions. The presence of a contaminating species on the wafer surface is indicated by the influence of pre-etch treatments on electrical measurements performed on heat-treated wafers, with and without Si implants. The identification of Cu as a contaminant is confirmed by photoluminescence measurements. With the appropriate wafer preparation process, the level of Cu contamination is below the SIMS detection limit of 〈1 × 1016 atoms cm-3.In the SIMS analysis of the surface-contaminated wafers, the Cu depth profile shape was dependent on the primary beam bombardment energy, suggesting a chemical segregation of Cu out of the altered layer, a redistribution that is known to occur in Si.To quantify the surface concentration of Cu, GaAs wafers were deliberately contaminated with Cu, heat treated and analysed with glow discharge mass spectrometry and SIMS to provide a cross-calibration.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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