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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the present report we analyzed the presence and distribution of various basement membrane (BM) proteins in normal blood and lymph vessels with special emphasis on BM-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) when compared to the BM-components collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin. We found that normal lymph capillaries have a BM that contains only collagen IV and small amounts of laminin, but almost no BM-associated HSPG and fibronectin, while blood capillaries showed a BM comprising of all components tested for. Larger lymphatics, however, were indistinguishable from blood vessels on the basis of BM staining. Lymphangiomas showed a BM pattern similar to that of lymph capillaries. Our findings provide evidence that the differential staining of BM-components may represent a reliable method for morphological distinction between blood and lymph capillaries. A comparison of these results with the BM-pattern in other functionally specialized blood vessels (glomerulus, sinusoids) provides evidence that the BM-composition may have some major impact on the functional properties. Thus, it is conceivable that the lack of HSPG in lymph capillaries may be essential for a free influx of fluid and proteins into these capillaries, which may have been extravasated into the interstitium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The tissue localization was analysed of collagen X during human fetal and juvenile articular cartilagebone metamorphosis. This unique collagen type was found in the hypertrophic cartilage zone peri- and extracellularly and in cartilage residues within bone trabeculae. In addition, occasionally a slight intracellular staining reaction was found in prehypertrophic proliferating chondrocytes and in chondrocytes surrounding vascular channels. A slight staining was also seen in the zone of periosteal ossification and occasionally at the transition zone of the perichondrium to resting cartilage. Our data provide evidence that the appearance of collagen X is mainly associated with cartilage hypertrophy, analogous to the reported tissue distribution of this collagen type in animals. In addition, we observed an increased and often “spotty” distribution of collagen X with increasing cartilage “degeneration” associated with the closure of the growth plate. In basal hypertrophic cartilage areas, a co-distribution of collagens II and X was found with very little and “spotty” collagen III. In juvenile cartilage areas around single hypertrophic chondrocytes, co-localization of collagens X and I was also detected.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: In this paper we analyse the interaction of fiscal rules and fiscal space. We find strong evidence for fiscal rules being associated with higher fiscal space. Furthermore, the analysis shows that countries with more fiscal space tend to have higher discretionary expenditures, but that this effect is significantly reduced if fiscal rules are in place. A similar effect can be observed for the procyclicality of fiscal policy, which is significantly higher in an environment of ample fiscal space, while this difference is reduced with fiscal rules. Regarding the different types of fiscal rules, we find the strongest results for expenditure rules and to a lesser extent for balanced budget rules, but none for debt rules.
    Keywords: E61 ; E62 ; H60 ; ddc:330 ; discretionary fiscal policy ; fiscal rules ; fiscal space ; procyclicality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Prostaglandin E1 ; endothelium ; polymorphonuclear leukocyte ; cell interaction ; adherence ; oxygen-derived metabolites ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We investigated the effect of prostaglandin E1 on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, in vivo. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of a prostaglandin E1 and placebo study group were harvested and their function, as production of oxygen-derived metabolites and adherence to human cultured endothelial cells, was compared. Additionally, data obtained from polymorphonuclear leukocytes of a prostaglandin E1 and placebo group were compared with data obtained from polymorphonuclear leukocytes from 28 blood donors, who served as a control group.Production of oxygen-derived metabolites by polymorphonuclear leukocytes during contact with endothelial cells was measured by chemiluminescence. Chemiluminescence was significantly (p 〈 0.01) increased in the placebo group in comparison to the control group decreasing to values of control group after 6 d (post-trauma). Chemiluminescence response was not significantly suppressed in patients treated with prostaglandin E1 in comparison to the placebo group. Adherence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (placebo group) to endothelial cells was significantly increased (p 〈 0.01) within the first 6 d post-trauma Following day 6, values were in the same range as values for the control group. Adherence was not significantly suppressed in patients treated with prostaglandin E1 in comparison to the placebo group. In conclusion, prostaglandin E1 at a dose of 20 ng/kg bw/min does not influence production of oxygenderived metabolites and adherence in polytraumatized patients in comparison to a placebo group. Additionally, production of oxygen-derived metabolites by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to endothelial cells is shown and it is evident that endothelial cells might influence production of oxygen derived metabolites by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 5 (1990), S. 119-131 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Human evolution can shed light on ethics through an account of valuing. This basic human activity is to be explained as a judgement on our desires in the light of a self appraisal with respect to desires of higher order. These concern what we desire to be and how we desire to lead a life. It is argued that the conditions of valuing may be found at least in primitive form in the use of language, which surely has an evolutionary explanation. But values may be trivial or false; to be ethically correct they must be authentic and objective. Because belief and desire are plastic to cultural influence, we cannot expect an evolutionary account of this last appraisal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-12
    Description: Mantle convection is a fundamental planetary process. Its plate mode is established and expressed by plate tectonics. Its plume mode also is established and expressed by interregional geological patterns. We developed both an event-based stratigraphic framework to illustrate the surface effects predicted by the plume model of Griffiths et al. (1989) and Griffiths and Campbell (1990) and a methodology to analyze continent-scale geological maps based on unconformities and hiatuses. The surface expression of ascending plumes lasts for tens-of-millions-of-years and rates vary over a few million years. As the plume ascends, its surface expression narrows, but increases in amplitude, leaving distinct geological and stratigraphic patterns in the geologic record, not only above the plume-head center, but also above its margins and in distal regions a few thousands-of-kilometers from the center. To visualize these patterns, we constructed sequential geological maps, chronostratigraphic sections, and hiatus diagrams. Dome-uplift with erosion (Şengör, 2001) and the flood basalts (Duncan and Richards, 1991; Ernst and Buchan, 2001a) are diagnostic starting points for plume-stratigraphic analyses. Mechanical collapse of the dome results in narrow rifting (Burke and Dewey, 1973), drainage-network reorganization (Cox, 1989), and flood-basalt eruption. In the marginal region, patterns of vertical movement, deformation and surface response are transient and complex. At first, the plume margin is uplifted together with the central region, but then it subsides as the plume ascents farther; With plume-head flattening, the plume margin experiences renewed outward-migrating surface uplift, erosion, broad crustal faulting, and drainage reorganization. Knickpoint migration occurs first inward-directed at ½ the rate of plume ascent and later outward-directed at the rate of asthenospheric flow. Interregional-scale unconformity-bounded stratigraphic successions document the two inversions. The distal regions, which did not experience any plume-related uplift, yield complete sedimentary records of the event; Event-related time gaps (hiatuses) in the sedimentary record increase towards the center, but the event horizon is best preserved in the distal region; it may be recognized by tracing its contacts from the center outwards. We extracted system- and series-hiatuses from interregional geological maps and built hiatus maps as proxies for paleo-dynamic topography and as a basis for comparison with results from numerical models. Interregional-scale geological maps are well suited to visualize plume-related geological records of dynamic topography in continental regions. However, geological records and hiatus information at the resolution of stages will be needed at interregional scales. The plume-stratigraphic framework is event-based, interregional, but not global, with time-dependent amplitudes that are significantly larger than those of global eustatic sea-level fluctuations. Global stratigraphic syntheses require integration of plate- and plume-stratigraphic frameworks before eustatic contributions may be assessed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-05-18
    Description: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on specific carrier materials are a promising source for the repair of traumatic cartilage injuries. The best supportive carrier material has not yet been determined. As natural components of cartilage’s extracellular matrix, hyaluronic acid and collagen are the focus of biomaterial research. In order to optimize chondrogenic support, we investigated three different scaffold compositions of a hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin based biomaterial. Methods: Human MSCs (hMSCs) were seeded under vacuum on composite scaffolds of three different HA-gelatin ratios and cultured in chondrogenic medium for 21 days. Cell-scaffold constructs were assessed at different time points for cell viability, gene expression patterns, production of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and for (immuno-)histological appearance. The intrinsic transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) uptake of empty scaffolds was evaluated by determination of the TGF-beta concentrations in the medium over time. Results: No significant differences were found for cell seeding densities and cell viability. hMSCs seeded on scaffolds with higher ratios of HA showed better cartilage-like differentiation in all evaluated parameters. TGF-beta uptake did not differ between empty scaffolds. Conclusion: Higher ratios of HA support the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on a HA-gelatin composite scaffold.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-16
    Description: The olfactory epithelium as a port of entry in neonatal neurolisteriosis The olfactory epithelium as a port of entry in neonatal neurolisteriosis, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06668-2 Listeria monocytogenes causes meningitis in newborns. Here, Pägelow et al. present a mouse model of neonatal cerebral listeriosis, and show that nasal inoculation, but not intragastric administration, leads to early brain infection in the absence of bacteraemia during the neonatal period.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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