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  • 1
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    In:  Nature, Luxembourg, Inst. Electrical & Electronics Engineers, vol. 395, no. 6697, pp. 62-65, pp. B06303, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1998
    Keywords: Seismology ; hot ; spot ; Plate tectonics ; Surface waves ; Tomography ; Dispersion
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-10-09
    Description: Analyses of underground temperature measurements from 358 boreholes in eastern North America, central Europe, southern Africa, and Australia indicate that, in the 20th century, the average surface temperature of Earth has increased by about 0.5 degreesC and that the 20th century has been the warmest of the past five centuries. The subsurface temperatures also indicate that Earth's mean surface temperature has increased by about 1.0 degreesC over the past five centuries. The geothermal data offer an independent confirmation of the unusual character of 20th-century climate that has emerged from recent multiproxy studies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pollack -- Huang -- Shen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Oct 9;282(5387):279-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉H. N. Pollack and S. Huang, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1063, USA. P.-Y. Shen, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9765150" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1998-06-05
    Description: Receiver functions derived from teleseismic body waves recorded by ocean-bottom seismometers on the southern East Pacific Rise reveal shear waves converted from compressional waves at the mantle discontinuities near 410- and 660-kilometer depth. The thickness of the mantle transition zone between the two discontinuities is normal relative to the global average and indicates that upwelling beneath the southern East Pacific Rise is not associated with an excess temperature in the mantle transition zone.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen -- Sheehan -- Dueker -- de Groot-Hedlin C -- Gilbert -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 May 22;280(5367):1232-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Y. Shen, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. A. F. Sheehan, K. G. Dueker, H. Gilbert, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9596570" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-12-01
    Description: The role of natural selection in molecular evolution has been inferred primarily by rejection of null hypotheses based on neutral theory, rather than by acceptance of specific predictions based on selection. In this report, a population genetic test of a specific prediction for selection on DNA polymorphism is presented. Pyrethroid insecticide use constitutes an experiment for which form of selection and molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) are both known. As predicted, differential pyrethroid selection on tobacco budworm populations generated significant geographic heterogeneity in sodium channel marker allele frequencies, compared with arbitrary loci.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Taylor, M F -- Shen, Y -- Kreitman, M E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Dec 1;270(5241):1497-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Entomology, Center for Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7491497" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; *Evolution, Molecular ; *Genes, Insect ; Genetic Markers ; Insecticide Resistance ; Insecticides/pharmacology ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Moths/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Pyrethrins/pharmacology ; *Selection, Genetic ; Sodium Channels/*genetics ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1998-06-05
    Description: The phase velocities of Rayleigh waves increase more rapidly with distance from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) axis than is predicted by models of conductive cooling of the lithosphere. Low velocities near the axis are probably caused by partial melt at depths of 20 to 70 kilometers in a zone several hundred kilometers wide. The lowest velocities are offset to the west of the EPR. Wave propagation is anisotropic; the fast direction is approximately perpendicular to the ridge, parallel to the spreading direction. Anisotropy increases from a minimum near the axis to 3 percent or more on the flanks.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Forsyth -- Webb -- Dorman -- Shen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 May 22;280(5367):1235-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉D. W. Forsyth, Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA. S. C. Webb and L. M. Dorman, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Y. Shen, Woods Hole Ocea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9596571" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Solvating gas chromatography ; Supercritical fluid chromatography ; Packed capillary columns ; Solvating power
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The efficiency (plate number per unit time) and elution power (range ofn-alkanes) of packed capillary SFC and SGC using CO2 as the mobile phase were compared. A higher plate number per unit time was obtained in SGC than in SFC using the same column under the same applied conditions. SGC is more suitable for fast separations than SFC. The solvating ability of the mobile phase, at the column exit end, decreased remarkably after the restrictor was removed. However, the elution molecular weight range in SGC can be greatly extended by increasing the column temperature.n-Alkanes with carbon numbers as high as 80 were separated under SGC conditions using a 35 cm ×250 μm i.d. column packed with 10 μm polymer-encapsulated silica particles at 200 atm, with a temperature program of 100–380°C at 10°C min−1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; Column technology ; Deactivation ; Polyethyleneoxides ; Ribonucleotides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary In this study, a variety of fused silica capillaries with different combinations and sequences of treatments with HMDS and polyethylene oxide were prepared in order to develop an optimized column modification method for analysis of ribonucleotides. The 12 most common ribonucleotides (UTP, CTP, ATP, GTP, UDP, CDP, ADP, GDP, UMP, CMP, AMP, and GMP) in human cells were used as test solutes. Column performance measurements, including electroosmotic flow (EOF), solute migration speed and retention, column efficiency, peak shape, and resolution were investigated. By analyzing solute migration speed and retention of various hydrophilic/hydrophobic solutes, the column wall effects (EOF and adsorption) can be distinguished. This analysis method can give guidance in optimizing polymer coating properties (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity) for CE columns. By studying the performance of these columns after various surface treatments, we were able to improve the separation of ribonucleotides from real samples to within 16 minutes with high efficiency and stability (over 300 analyses) using columns first deactivated with hexamethyldisilazane, and then coated with polyethylene oxide.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Supercritical fluid chromatography ; Solvating gas chromatography ; Polybutadiene coated zirconia ; CO2 mobile phase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary In this paper, practical considerations of column efficiency, separation speed, thermal stability, and column polarity of capillary columns packed with polybutadiene-coated zirconia were investigated under solvating gas chromatography (SGC) conditions using carbon dioxide as mobile phase. When compared with results obtained from conventional porous octadecyl obtained from conventional porous octadecyl bonded silica (ODS) particles, PBD-zirconia particles produced greater change in mobile phase linear velocity with pressure than conventional ODS particles under the same conditions. The maximum plate number per second (Nt) obtained with a 30 cm PBD-zirconia column was approximately 1.5 times higher than that obtained with an ODS column at 100 °C. Therefore, the PBD-zirconia phase is more suitable for fast separations than conventional ODS particles in SGC. Maximum plate numbers per meter of 76,900 and 63,300 were obtained using a 57 cm×250 μm i.d. fused silica capillary column packed with 3 μm PBD-zirconia at 50 °C and 100 °C, respectively. The PBD-zirconia phase was stable at temperatures up to 320 °C under SGC conditions using carbon dioxide as mobile phase. Polarizable aromatic compounds and low molecular weight ketones and aldehydes were eluted with symmetrical peaks from a 10 cm column packed with 3 μm PBD-zirconia. Zirconia phases with greater inertness are required for the analysis of more polar compounds by SGC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromatographia 49 (1999), S. 333-337 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Supercritical fluid chromatography ; Gas chromatography ; Solvating gas chromatography ; Peak capacity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary In this paper, a general peak capacity expression was evaluated using columns containing various packing materials under solvating gas chromatography (SGC) conditions. Differing from column efficiency, peak capacity can describe both separation capability and speed when introducing the dead time into the peak capacity expression. Various factors that influence peak capacity in SGC are described, including particle pore size, chemical surface modification, particle size, column length, temperature, and pressure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-482X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique has been employed to produce ultrafine tin oxide powders. The structural features and phase transition of this material have been characterized using differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The oxygen absorption behaviour and gassensing properties have been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical measurements. Thick film gas sensors made from such ultrafine SnO2 powders yield better sensitivities than those of normal undoped SnO2 gas sensors. A gas-sensing reaction mechanism is also proposed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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