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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Until now, many extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. osteopontin and osteonectin, have been used to determine a cell’s osteogenic maturation. The disadvantage in evaluation of these proteins is their relative wide-ranging appearance throughout the osteogenic differentiation process. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish an immunohistochemical setup using E11, a marker that binds selectively to cells of the late osteogenic cell lineage. In addition, the histochemical expression of the bone matrix proteins osteonectin, osteopontin and fibronectin was compared to that of E11 using monoclonal antibodies. For light microscopical detection of osteogenic markers in cultured cells we developed a simple paraffin technique using a fibrin glue as embedding medium. This allows the handling of cultured cells such as a tissue sample and includes the use of stored biological specimens for further immunohistochemical experiments. We used newborn rat calvariae for whole tissue preparations and for isolation and cultivation of bone cells. In addition, we included the rat osteosarcoma cell line ROS 17/2.8 in this study. For the first time, we have localised E11 in osteocytes of rat calvaria preparations at the electron microscopical level. E11 was detected at plasma membranes of osteocytes and their processes, but not at those of osteoblasts. Accompanying experiments with cultured newborn rat calvaria cells and ROS 17/2.8 cells revealed E11 reactivity on a subset of cells. The results obtained confirm the suitability of the differentiation marker E11 as a sensitive instrument for the characterisation of bone cell culture systems.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Canopy ; Evaporation ; Leaf area index ; Scaling ; Surface conductance ; Stomata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We examine conductances for evaporation from both vegetation and soil in response to environmental variables. Data from a vertically-structured pristine forest of Nothofagus are presented as an example of the effects of biodiversity on the scaling of conductances between tiers of plant organisation. Available data sets of maximum leaf stomatal conductances (g lmax ) and bulk vegetation surface conductances (G smax ) are compared. Overall, the ratio G smax /g lmax is consistently close to 3 for seven major vegetation types of diverse structure. An analytical model accounts for this close relationship, and in particular how G smax is conservative against changes in leaf area index because of the compensating decrease in plant canopy transpiration and increase in soil evaporation as leaf area index diminishes. The model is also successfully tested by comparison with canopy conductances of emergent trees measured in the Nothofagus forest. The constraint of vegetation surface conductance and evaporation via environmental regulation by irradiance, air saturation deficit and root zone water supply are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Root exudates were sampled from detopped root systems of castor bean (Ricinus communis). Different volume flux rates were imposed by changing the pneumatic pressure around the root system using a Passioura-type pressure chamber. The concentrations of cations, anions, amino acids, organic acids and abscisic acid decreased hyperbolically when flux rates increased from pure root exudation up to values typical for transpiring plants. Concentrations at low and high fluxes differed by up to 40 times (phosphate) and the ratio of substances changed by factors of up to 10. During the subsequent reduction of flux produced by lowering the pneumatic pressure in the root pressure chamber, the concentrations and ratios of substances deviated (at a given flux rate) from those found when flux was increased. The flux dependence of exudate composition cannot therefore be explained by a simple dilution mechanism. Xylem sap samples from intact, transpiring plants were collected using a Passioura-type root pressure chamber. The concentrations of the xylem sap changed diurnally. Substances could be separated into three groups: (1) calcium, magnesium and amino acid concentrations correlated well with the values expected from their concentration-flux relationships, whereas (2) the concentrations of sulphate and phosphate deviated from the expected relationships during the light phase, and (3) nitrate and potassium concentrations in intact plants varied in completely the opposite manner from those in isolated root systems. Abscisic acid concentrations in the root exudate were dependent on the extent of water use and showed strong diurnal variations in the xylem sap of intact plants even in droughtstressed plants. Calculations using root exudates overestimated export from the root system in intact plants, with the largest deviation found for proton flux (a factor of 10). We conclude that root exudate studies cannot be used as the sole basis for estimating fluxes of substances in the xylem of intact plants. Consequences for studying and modelling xylem transport in whole plants are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Higher rates of nitrate assimilation are required to support faster growth in enhanced carbon dioxide. To investigate how this is achieved, tobacco plants were grown on high nitrate and high light in ambient and enhanced (700 μmol mol–1) carbon dioxide. Surprisingly, enhanced carbon dioxide did not increase leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity in the middle of the photoperiod. Possible reasons for this anomalous result were investigated. (a) Measurements of biomass, nitrate, amino acids and glutamine in plants fertilized once and twice daily with 12 mol m–3 nitrate showed that enhanced carbon dioxide did not lead to a nitrate limitation in these plants. (b) Enhanced carbon dioxide modified the diurnal regulation of NR activity in source leaves. The transcript for nia declined during the light period in a similar manner in ambient and enhanced carbon dioxide. The decline of the transcript correlated with a decrease of nitrate in the leaf, and was temporarily reversed after re-irrigating with nitrate in the second part of the photoperiod. The decline of the transcript was not correlated with changes of sugars or glutamine. NR activity and protein decline in the second part of the photoperiod, and NR is inactivated in the dark in ambient carbon dioxide. The decline of NR activity was smaller and dark inactivation was partially reversed in enhanced carbon dioxide, indicating that post-transcriptional or post-translational regulation of NR has been modified. The increased activation and stability of NR in enhanced carbon dioxide was correlated with higher sugars and lower glutamine in the leaves. (c) Enhanced carbon dioxide led to increased levels of the minor amino acids in leaves. (d) Enhanced carbon dioxide led to a large decrease of glycine and a small decrease of serine in leaves of mature plants. The glycine:serine ratio decreased in source leaves of older plants and seedlings. The consequences of a lower rate of photorespiration for the levels of glutamine and the regulation of nitrogen metabolism are discussed. (e) Enhanced carbon dioxide also modified the diurnal regulation of NR in roots. The nia transcript increased after nitrate fertilization in the early and the second part of the photoperiod. The response of the transcript was not accentuated in enhanced carbon dioxide. NR activity declined slightly during the photoperiod in ambient carbon dioxide, whereas it increased 2-fold in enhanced carbon dioxide. The increase of root NR activity in enhanced carbon dioxide was preceded by a transient increase of sugars, and was followed by a decline of sugars, a faster decrease of nitrate than in ambient carbon dioxide, and an increase of nitrite in the roots. (f) To interpret the physiological significance of these changes in nitrate metabolism, they were compared with the current growth rate of the plants. (g) In 4–5-week-old plants, the current rate of growth was similar in ambient and enhanced carbon dioxide (≈ 0·4 g–1 d–1). Enhanced carbon dioxide only led to small changes of NR activity, nitrate decreased, and overall amino acids were not significantly increased. (h) Young seedlings had a high growth rate (0·5 g–1 d–1) in ambient carbon dioxide, that was increased by another 20% in enhanced carbon dioxide. Enhanced carbon dioxide led to larger increases of NR activity and NR activation, a 2–3-fold increase of glutamine, a 50% increase of glutamate, and a 2–3-fold increase in minor amino acids. It also led to a higher nitrate level. It is argued that enhanced carbon dioxide leads to a very effective stimulation of nitrate uptake, nitrate assimilation and amino acid synthesis in seedlings. This will play an important role in allowing faster growth rates in enhanced carbon dioxide at this stage.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 19 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We studied the effects of variations of water flux through the plant, of diurnal variation of water flux, and of variation of vapour pressure deficit at the leaf on compensation pressure in the Passioura-type pressure chamber, the composition of the xylem sap and leaf conductance in Ricinus communis. The diurnal pattern of compensation pressure showed stress relaxation during the night hours, while stress increased during the day, when water limitation increased. Thus compensation pressure was a good measure of the momentary water status of the root throughout the day and during drought. The bulk soil water content at which predawn compensation pressure and abscisic acid concentration in the xylem sap increased and leaf conductance decreased, was high when the water usage of the plant was high. For all xylem sap constituents analysed, variations in concentrations during the day were larger than changes in mean concentrations with drought. Mean concentrations of phosphate and the pH of the xylem sap declined with drought, while nitrate concentration remained constant. When the measurement leaf was exposed to a different VPD from the rest of the plant, leaf conductance declined by 400mmol m−2 s−1 when compensation pressure increased by 1 MPa in all treatments. The compensation pressure needed to keep the shoot turgid, leaf conductance and the abscisic acid concentration in the xylem were linearly related. This was also the case when the highly dynamic development of stress was taken into account.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A model is presented which solves simultaneously for leaf-scale stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and the energy balance as a function of leaf position within canopies of well-watered vegetation. Fluxes and conductances were calculated separately for sunlit and shaded leaves. A linear dependence of photosynthetic capacity on leaf nitrogen content was assumed, while leaf nitrogen content and light intensity were assumed to decrease exponentially within canopies. Separate extinction coefficients were used for diffuse and direct beam radiation. An efficient Gaussian integration technique was used to compute fluxes and mean conductances for the canopy. The multilayer model synthesizes current knowledge of radiation penetration, leaf physiology and the physics of evaporation and provides insights into the response of whole canopies to multiple, interacting factors. The model was also used to explore sources of variation in the slopes of two simple parametric models (nitrogen- and light-use efficiency), and to set bounds on the magnitudes of the parameters.For canopies low in total N, daily assimilation rates are ∼10% lower when leaf N is distributed uniformly than when the same total N is distributed according to the exponentially decreasing profile of absorbed radiation. However, gains are negligible for plants with high N concentrations. Canopy conductance, Gc should be calculated as Gc=Aσ(fslgsl+fshgsh), where Δ is leaf area index, fsi and fsh are the fractions of sunlit and shaded leaves at each level, and gsi and gsh are the corresponding stomatal conductances. Simple addition of conductances without this weighting causes errors in transpiration calculated using the ‘big-leaf’ version of the Penman-Monteith equation. Partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat is very responsive to the parameter describing the sensitivity of stomata to the atmospheric humidity deficit. This parameter also affects canopy conductance, but has a relatively small impact on canopy assimilation.Simple parametric models are useful for extrapolating understanding from small to large scales, but the complexity of real ecosystems is thus subsumed in unexplained variations in parameter values. Simulations with the multilayer model show that both nitrogen- and radiation-use efficiencies depend on plant nutritional status and the diffuse component of incident radiation, causing a 2- to 3-fold variation in these efficiencies.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Based on review and original data, this synthesis investigates carbon pools and fluxes of Siberian and European forests (600 and 300 million ha, respectively). We examine the productivity of ecosystems, expressed as positive rate when the amount of carbon in the ecosystem increases, while (following micrometeorological convention) downward fluxes from the atmosphere to the vegetation (NEE = Net Ecosystem Exchange) are expressed as negative numbers. Productivity parameters are Net Primary Productivity (NPP=whole plant growth), Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP = CO2 assimilation minus ecosystem respiration), and Net Biome Productivity (NBP = NEP minus carbon losses through disturbances bypassing respiration, e.g. by fire and logging). Based on chronosequence studies and national forestry statistics we estimate a low average NPP for boreal forests in Siberia: 123 gC m–2 y–1. This contrasts with a similar calculation for Europe which suggests a much higher average NPP of 460 gC m–2 y–1 for the forests there. Despite a smaller area, European forests have a higher total NPP than Siberia (1.2–1.6 vs. 0.6–0.9 × 1015 gC region–1 y–1). This arises as a consequence of differences in growing season length, climate and nutrition. For a chronosequence of Pinus sylvestris stands studied in central Siberia during summer, NEE was most negative in a 67-y old stand regenerating after fire (– 192 mmol m–2 d–1) which is close to NEE in a cultivated forest of Germany (– 210 mmol m–2 d–1). Considerable net ecosystem CO2-uptake was also measured in Siberia in 200- and 215-y old stands (NEE:174 and – 63 mmol m–2 d–1) while NEP of 7- and 13-y old logging areas were close to the ecosystem compensation point. Two Siberian bogs and a bog in European Russia were also significant carbon sinks (– 102 to – 104 mmol m–2 d–1). Integrated over a growing season (June to September) we measured a total growing season NEE of – 14 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 168 gC m–2 summer–1) in a 200-y Siberian pine stand and – 5 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 60 gC m–2 summer–1) in Siberian and European Russian bogs. By contrast, over the same period, a spruce forest in European Russia was a carbon source to the atmosphere of (NEE: + 7 mol m–2 summer–1 = + 84 gC m–2 summer–1). Two years after a windthrow in European Russia, with all trees being uplifted and few successional species, lost 16 mol C m–2 to the atmosphere over a 3-month in summer, compared to the cumulative NEE over a growing season in a German forest of – 15.5 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 186 gC m–2 summer–1; European flux network annual averaged – 205 gC m–2 y–1). Differences in CO2-exchange rates coincided with differences in the Bowen ratio, with logging areas partitioning most incoming radiation into sensible heat whereas bogs partitioned most into evaporation (latent heat). Effects of these different surface energy exchanges on local climate (convective storms and fires) and comparisons with the Canadian BOREAS experiment are discussed. Following a classification of disturbances and their effects on ecosystem carbon balances, fire and logging are discussed as the main processes causing carbon losses that bypass heterotrophic respiration in Siberia. Following two approaches, NBP was estimated to be only about 13–16 mmol m–2 y–1 for Siberia. It may reach 67 mmol m–2 y–1 in North America, and about 140–400 mmol m–2 y–1 in Scandinavia. We conclude that fire speeds up the carbon cycle, but that it results also in long-term carbon sequestration by charcoal formation. For at least 14 years after logging, regrowth forests remain net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. This has important implications regarding the effects of Siberian forest management on atmospheric concentrations. For many years after logging has taken place, regrowth forests remain weaker sinks for atmospheric CO2 than are nearby old-growth forests.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Key wordsPinus sylvestris ; Siberia ; Biomass ; Self-thinning ; Forest fire
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The study presents a data set of above-ground biomass (AGB), structure, spacing and fire regime, for 24 stands of pristine Siberian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests with lichens (n = 20) or Vaccinium/mosses (n = 4) as ground cover, along four chronosequences. The stands of the “lichen” site type (LT) were stratified into three chronosequences according to stand density and fire history. Allometric equations were established from 90 sample trees for stem, coarse branch, fine branch, twig and needle biomass. The LT stands exhibited a low but sustained biomass accumulation until a stand age of 383 years. AGB reached only 6–10 kgdw m−2 after 200 years depending on stand density and fire history compared to 20 kgdw m−2 in the “Vaccinium” type (VT) stands. Leaf area index (LAI) in the LT stands remained at 0.5–1.5 and crown cover was 30–60%, whereas LAI reached 2.5 and crown cover was 〉100% in the VT stands. Although nearest-neighbour analyses suggested the existence of density-dependent mortality, fire impact turned out to have a much stronger effect on density dynamics. Fire scar dating and calculation of mean and initial fire return intervals revealed that within the LT stands differences in structure and biomass were related to the severity of fire regimes, which in turn was related to the degree of landscape fragmentation by wetlands. Self-thinning analysis was used to define the local carrying capacity for biomass. A series of undisturbed LT stands was used to characterise the upper self-thinning boundary. Stands that had experienced a moderate fire regime were positioned well below the self-thinning boundary in a distinct fire-thinning band of reduced major axis regression slope −0.26. We discuss how this downward shift resulted from alternating phases of density reduction by fire and subsequent regrowth. We conclude that biomass in Siberian Scots pine forests is strongly influenced by fire and that climate change will affect ecosystem functions predominantly via changes in fire regimes.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: Siberia ; forest
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The most widely distributed coniferous forests in the world are the larch forests. In the Russian Federation they occupy 27.6 × 106 ha. In Siberia, the larch species Larix russica generally grows west of the Yenissei River, and Larix gmelinii grows to the east. The morphological and physiological features of L. gmelinii make it possible for this species to grow in the far north of eastern Siberia, where climate conditions are more severe: The range of air temperature fluctuations in this region is more than 100°C, from 38°C down to 64°C below zero. One of the major adaptions to unfavorable soil conditions is provided by a specific feature of root formation in L. gmelinii, in which the apex central root dies off at the permafrost border and a root system develops in upper soil layers. The major larch vulnerability factors are natural and anthropogenic fires and damage caused by insects, which become more frequent with hot and dry weather. The consequences of projected global warming could be both positive and negative for larch forests. Permafrost melting may result in improved soil nutrition in the areas the larch forests occupy, yet the frequency of forest fires and damage by pathogens are likely to increase. Global warming is expected to cause forest die back and increased areas of steppe in the southern regions of eastern Siberia.
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