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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0924
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Many interesting tasks in technology need the solution of complex boundary value problems within the mathematical theory of elastoplasticity. Error controlled adaptive strategies should be used in order to achieve a prescribed accuracy of the computed solutions at minimum cost. Local error indicators in the primal form of the finite-element-method for Hencky- and Prandtl–Reußplasticity without and with nonlinear hardening are presented, controlling global errors of equilibrium, plastic strain rates, the yield condition and the numerical integration of the flow rule. A 2D finite element code was extended for the transfer of physical parameters between meshes and for a combined space and time adaptive strategy. All error indicators are tested with the benchmark example of a rectangular plane strain problem with a hole.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Iron superoxide dismutase ; SOD ; X-ray absorption ; XAS ; Extended X-ray absorption fine structure ; EXAFS ; P. shermanii ; E. coli ; Metalloproteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The local structure of the iron site in ferric superoxide dismutase from P. shermanii was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The metal-ligand cluster of the enzyme is found to be similar to the crystallographically investigated ferric superoxide dismutase from E. coli. At pH 6.4 the enzyme is five-fold coordinated with three histidines, an aspartate and a water molecule. The average bond lengths between the metal and the histidines are about 2.10 Å, between metal and aspartate they are about 1.86 Å and between metal and water 1.96 Å. With an increase in pH a change in the coordination number from five to six is observed both in pre-edge peak and EXAFS spectra analysis. However, the bond lengths of the ligands do not change dramatically, they are conserved for the aspartate and increase slightly to 2.13 Å for the average metal - histidine distance at pH 9.3. The observation of the increase in coordination number is correlated with a decrease in enzymatic activity which occurs in the high pH range. The zinc EXAFS spectra of P. shermanii superoxide dismutase have shown that zinc can be incorporated in the active center instead of the iron.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1114
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract  We present a measurement technique designed to accurately measure small flow rates near atmospheric pressure, and demonstrate the ability to measure flows on the order of 10-10 mol/sec. The technique is based upon a modification of a constant-volume mass accumulation scheme where the flow rate is measured by monitoring the change in pressure of a known volume of gas. We identify two phenomena, thermally-induced fluctuations and thermodynamically-induced fluctuations, which will affect the resolution and dynamic range of the instrumentation and discuss how the problems associated with them can be mitigated. We estimate the resolution to be approximately 2.0×10-13 mol/s, and the maximum measurable flow rate to be to the order 2×10-9 mol/s.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Somaclonal variation ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Triticale ; Regeneration ; Mitochondrial atp6 gene region
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Comparative hybridization analyses of total DNA from fertile and cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) triticale plants which had been regenerated from embryogenic callus cultures revealed the organization and variation of the mitochondrial atp6 gene region. In order to compare different developmental phases, we analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from both the shoots and full-grown regenerants. Somaclonal variants were identified on the basis of differences in the mtDNA from fertile and CMS triticale. Several shoots as well as all of the full-grown plants analysed showed somaclonal variation. This phenomenon could be traced back to having primarily orginated from the influence of the nuclear background, which give rise to a stoichiometric increase in a rye-specific orf25 gene copy, and a tissue culture-induced combination of fertile and CMS-specific mtDNA organization of the atp6 gene area. The latter event is probably caused by the homologous recombination of repetitive sequences that may be accompanied by selective amplifications.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Somaclonal variation  ;  Cytoplasmic male sterility  ;  Triticale  ;  Regeneration  ;  Mitochondrial atp6 gene region
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Comparative hybridization analyses of total DNA from fertile and cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) triticale plants which had been regenerated from embryogenic callus cultures revealed the organization and variation of the mitochondrial atp6 gene region. In order to compare different developmental phases, we analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from both the shoots and full-grown regenerants. Somaclonal variants were identified on the basis of differences in the mtDNA from fertile and CMS triticale. Several shoots as well as all of the full-grown plants analysed showed somaclonal variation. This phenomenon could be traced back to having primarily orginated from the influence of the nuclear background, which give rise to a stoichiometric increase in a rye-specific orf25 gene copy, and a tissue culture-induced combination of fertile and CMS-specific mtDNA organization of the atp6 gene area. The latter event is probably caused by the homologous recombination of repetitive sequences that may be accompanied by selective amplifications.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1090-6487
    Keywords: 52.50.Jm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The x-ray spectra of a plasma produced by heating CO2 clusters with intense femtosecond laser pulses with λ=0.8 μm and λ=0.4 μm are investigated. Spatially resolved x-ray spectra of the cluster plasma are obtained. The observed characteristic features of the x-ray emission spectra show unequivocally that such a plasma contains quite a large relative number of ions (≃10−2–10−3) with energies of 0.1–1 MeV. The contour of the OVIII Lyα line is found to have characteristic features that are especially conspicuous when the clusters are heated with second-harmonic pulses. These features cannot be explained by any mechanisms known to the authors.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Burning vegetation produces partly charred plant material which subsequently could contribute to the highly refractory proportion of soil organic matter. The presence of charred organic carbon (COC) was investigated in 17 horizons originating from nine soils from Germany and the Netherlands using a suite of complementary methods (high-energy ultraviolet photo-oxidation, scanning electron microscopy, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, lignin analysis by CuO oxidation). Charred organic carbon could not be detected in the A horizons of an Alisol and a Gleysol, but it contributed up to 45% of the organic carbon and up to about 8 g kg–1 of the soil in a range of grey to black soils (Cambisol, Luvisol, Phaeozem, Chernozem and Greyzem). All these soils have chernozemic soil properties (dark colour, A–C profile, high base saturation, bioturbation). A 10-km colour sequence of four chernozemic soils, which were very similar in chemical and physical properties, showed a strong relation between colour and the content of COC. This suggests that the COC affects mainly soil colour in the sequence studied. Finely divided COC seems to be a major constituent of many chernozemic soils in Germany. These results suggest that besides climate, vegetation and bioturbation, fire has played an important role in the pedogenesis of chernozemic soils.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Soil organic matter can be intimately associated with mineral particles of various sizes. For structural studies, soil organic matter can be isolated in particle size fractions after complete dispersion of the aggregates by ultrasonication. The ultrasonic dispersion energy necessary for complete dispersion was investigated in three A and two B horizons originating from four soils differing in pedogenesis (Gleysol, Phaeozem, Podzol, Alisol), organic C (4.2–34.5 g kg–1) and clay content (24–294 g kg–1). Calorimetric calibration of five probe-type ultrasonifiers revealed that the actual energy output from an instrument can depart widely from its nominal output, and that this discrepancy varies from instrument to instrument. Calorimetric calibration is therefore essential for consistency and comparisons between laboratories. Between 450 and 500 J ml–1 of ultrasonic dispersion energy was enough to disperse completely all samples investigated. The particle size distributions obtained were close to those from standard analysis, except for smaller yields (–20 to –80 g kg–1) of sand size fractions, which suggests that dispersion by ultrasound is more effective. Based on total C, C:N ratio and distribution of dissolved C, no detachment of soil organic matter from primary organomineral complexes and no redistribution between particle size fractions could be detected in the range 30–590 J ml–1 of dispersion energy.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Standard procedure for dispersing natural soils for particle size fractionation can be too aggressive for soil containing coal and other organic particles from coal industries. We have investigated ultrasonic dispersion for the latter in four soils differing in pedogenesis (Phaeozem, Podzol, reclaimed mine soils), carbon content (27.5–138.6 g kg–1), clay content (80–153 g kg–1) and sources of particles (airborne coal dust, combustion residues, lignite particles). As we found previously for natural soils, the ultrasonic energy needed for complete dispersion varies between 450 and 500 J ml–1, but the resulting particle size distributions differ from those obtained by standard textural analysis. This is probably related to the different properties of native soil organic matter and coal and combusted particles. Coal and soot particles may partly resist oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, depending on material and particle size. The diameter of lignite particles, remaining after oxidation, is overestimated in sedimentation analysis by a factor of 1.66. Sand-sized lignite particles can be disrupted by ultrasonication and redistributed to finer particle size fractions. The ultrasonic dispersion and particle size fractionation procedure can be applied to soils containing coal and combusted particles, but caution is needed in interpreting the results if they contain large proportions of coal particles.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The fluid-absent reaction 12 zoisite = 3 lawsonite + 7 grossular + 8 kyanite + 1 coesite was experimentally reversed in the model system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (CASH) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The upper pressure stability limit for zoisite was found to extend to 5.0 GPa at 700 °C and to 6.6 GPa at 950 °C. Additional experiments both in the H2O-SiO2-saturated and in the H2O-Al2O3-saturated portions of CASH provide further constraints on high pressure phase relationships of lawsonite, zoisite, grossular, kyanite, coesite, and an aqueous fluid. Consistency of the present experiments with the H2O-saturated breakdown of lawsonite is demonstrated by thermodynamic analysis using linear programming techniques. Two sets of data consistent with databases of Berman (1988) and Holland and Powell (1990) were retrieved combining experimental phase relationships, calorimetric constraints, and recently measured elastic properties of solid phases. The best fits result in G f ,1,298 ∘,zoisite=−6,499,400 J and S 1,298 ∘,zoisite=302 J/K, and G f ,1,298 ∘,lawsonite=−4,514,600 J and S 1,298 ∘,lawsonite=220 J/K for the dataset of Holland and Powell, and G f ,1,298 ∘,zoisite=−6,492,120 J and S 1,298 ∘,zoisite=304 J/K, and G f ,1,298 ∘,lawsonite=−4,513,000 J and S 1,298 ∘,lawsonite= 218 J/K for the dataset of Berman. Examples of the usage of zoisite as a geohygrometer and as a geobarometer in rocks metamorphosed at eclogite facies conditions are worked, profiting from the thermodynamic properties retrieved here.
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