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  • 1995-1999  (26)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Transcriptional regulation ; Phospholipid biosynthesis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; INO2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Expression of structural genes of phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast is mediated by the inositol/choline-responsive element (ICRE). ICRE-dependent gene activation, requiring the regulatory genes INO2 and INO4, is repressed in the presence of the phospholipid precursors inositol and choline. INO2 and, to a less extent, INO4 are positively autoregulated by functional ICRE sequences in the respective upstream regions. However, an INO2 allele devoid of its ICRE functionally complemented an ino2 mutation and completely restored inositol/choline regulation of Ino2p-dependent reporter genes. Low-level expression of INO2 and INO4 genes, each under control of the heterologous MET25 promoter, did not alter the regulatory pattern of target genes. Thus, upstream regions of INO2 and INO4 are not crucial for transcriptional control of ICRE-dependent genes by inositol and choline. Interestingly, over-expression of INO2, but not of INO4, counteracted repression by phospholipid precursors. Possibly, a functional antagonism between INO2 and a negative regulator is the key event responsible for repression or de-repression.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archive of applied mechanics 69 (1999), S. 765-784 
    ISSN: 1432-0681
    Keywords: Key words Finite elements, statistical equivalent linearization, component-mode synthesis, complex modal analysis, random eigenvalue problem, hysteresis, damping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Summary This paper focuses on the stochastic dynamic response of structures modeled by finite elements with a relatively large number of degrees of freedom. FE models with nonlinearities and uncertain (stochastic) system properties are discussed. It is shown that component mode synthesis can be used most advantageously to solve the issue of computational efficiency and feasibility. The stochastic response due to stochastic loading of large FE models with nonlinear elements is determined by statistical equivalent linearization (EQL). The developed component-mode synthesis allows to determine the complex modal properties of arbitrary large linearized finite element models. Nonsymmetric structural matrices, as a result of the EQL, and filters for modeling of filtered white noise can be treated by the suggested approach. Since the efficiency of the procedure is nearly independent of the number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF) involved, statistical equivalent linearization becomes applicable for arbitrary detailed FE models. Furthermore, the dynamic response of FE models with uncertain or stochastic system properties is discussed. In this case, Monte Carlo simulation is suggested as the most appropriate approach for FE models. The paper focuses on the random eigenvalue problem for large FE systems as the computationally most demanding part of the dynamic analysis. Component-mode synthesis is used to provide in an efficient manner all the eigenvalue solutions of the FE system needed by the Monte Carlo simulation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Prolidase ; Metalloprotease ; Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ; Nucleotide sequence analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract From a genomic library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (DSM7290) DNA, in the low-copy-number vector pLG339, a recombinant clone was selected, which complemented a mutation in the prolidase gene (pepQ) of Escherichia coli UK173. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1104 nucleotides corresponding to a protein of 368 amino acids with a calculated pI of 4.64 and a molecular mass of 41087 Da. The start site of pepQ transcription was determined by primer extension analysis with mRNA prepared from L. delbrueckii. Based on homology of the gene product to various peptidases and on the substrate specificity determined, the peptidase was designated PepQ. The influence of various protease inhibitors and cations on peptidase activity indicated that PepQ is a metalloprotease. The absence of a membrane-spanning domain and a signal peptide sequence argues for a cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsSaccharomyces cerevisiae ; Gluconeogenesis ; Malate synthase ; Transcriptional regulation ; MLS1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The malate synthase gene, MLS1, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is transcriptionally regulated by the carbon source in the growth medium. A MLS1-lacZ fusion gene, expressed at a basal level in the presence of 2% glucose, is derepressed more than 100-fold under conditions of sugar limitation. No evidence for MLS1 induction by oleic acid was found. By deletion analysis of the MLS1 control region, we identified two sites, UAS1 and UAS2, as important for efficient derepression of the gene. Both sites contain sequences that resemble the previously characterized carbon source-responsive element (CSRE) found in the promoter of the isocitrate lyase gene ICL1. Indeed, UAS1 and UAS2 in the MLS1 upstream region turn out to be functional CSRE sequence variants. This finding allowed us to define a modified version of the CSRE consensus sequence (CCRTYSRNCCG). Protein binding to UAS1MLS1 was observed with extracts from derepressed but not from repressed cells, and could be competed for by an excess of the unlabelled CSRE(ICL1) sequence. No competition was observed with a mutated CSRE variant. Site-directed mutagenesis of both CSREs in the MLS1 promoter reduced gene activation under derepressing conditions to 20% of the wild-type level. The same decrease was observed with the wild-type MLS1 promoter in a cat8 mutant, lacking an activator of CSRE-dependent transcription. The CSRE/Cat8p-independent activation of MLS1 is mediated by constitutive UAS elements. The pleiotropic transcription factor Abf1p, which binds to the MLS1 upstream region, may contribute to constitutive activation. Thus, in order to ensure the severe glucose repression of MLS1 observed, repressor elements that respond to the carbon source must counteract constitutive activation. In summary, ICL1 and MLS1 share common cis-acting elements, although a distinct mechanism of carbon source control also contributes to MLS1 regulation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The Rutherford scattering diagnostic at TEXTOR has been used to investigate the time evolution of the ion velocity distribution during sawtooth activity. Coherent averaging techniques have been employed to obtain better statistics. The time evolutions of central ion and electron density were found to be strongly correlated in four out of five cases. In one case, where saturation of the sawteeth occurred, a discrepancy between the two has been found, which could be attributed to an influx of impurities towards the end of the sawtooth. Changes of about 20% in the central toroidal rotation of the bulk ions have been found during sawtooth crashes of neutral beam injected discharges, whereas no changes were found in the ohmic case. No statistically reliable statements can be made about changes in the ion temperature. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Structural genes of phospholipid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are activated by the Ino2p/Ino4p transcription factor that binds to ICRE promoter motifs and mediates maximal gene expression in the absence of inositol. We identified the ino80 mutation causing inositol auxotrophy as a result of a defect in ICRE-dependent gene activation. The product of the corresponding wild-type gene INO80 (= YGL150C) shows significant similarity to the Snf2p family of DNA-dependent ATPases. Nevertheless, SNF2 in increased gene dosage did not suppress ino80 mutant phenotypes. Mutation of the Ino80p lysine residue corresponding to the NTP binding site of Snf2p led to a non-functional protein. In ino80 null mutants, gene activation mediated by an ICRE decreased to 16% of the wild-type level. Maximal expression of PHO5, GAL1, CYC1 and ICL1 was also significantly reduced. Thus, Ino80p affects several transcription factors involved in unrelated pathways. As demonstrated by gel filtration, Ino80p is part of a high-molecular-weight complex of more than 1 MDa. Similar to what was found for Snf2p, the Ino80p-containing complex may influence the transcriptional level of several unrelated structural genes by functioning as an ATPase that possibly acts on chromatin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growth with a non-fermentable carbon source requires co-ordinate transcriptional activation of gluconeogenic structural genes by an upstream activation site (UAS) element, designated CSRE (carbon source-responsive element). The zinc cluster protein encoded by CAT8 is necessary for transcriptional derepression mediated by a CSRE. Expression of CAT8 as well as transcriptional activation by Cat8p is regulated by the carbon source, requiring a functional Cat1p (= Snf1p) protein kinase. The importance of both regulatory levels was investigated by construction of CAT8 variants with a constitutive transcriptional activation domain (INO2TAD) and/or a carbon source-independent promoter (MET25 ). Whereas a reporter gene driven by a CSRE-dependent synthetic minimal promoter showed a 40-fold derepression with wild-type CAT8, an almost constitutive expression was found with a MET25–CAT8–INO2TAD fusion construct due to a dramatically increased gene activation under conditions of glucose repression. Similar results were obtained with the mRNA of the isocitrate lyase gene ICL1 and at the level of ICL enzyme activity. Taking advantage of a Cat8p size variant, we demonstrate its binding to the CSRE. Our data show that carbon source-dependent transcriptional activation by Cat8p is the most important mechanism affecting the regulated expression of gluconeogenic structural genes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This article describes the fabrication and operating principles of a device suitable for measuring displacements, stresses, strains, accelerations, and forces. The device consists of an elastomeric material with a surface relief diffraction grating embossed on its surface. Mechanical compression of this element changes the way that it diffracts light. This article also describes designs and performance characteristics of simple accelerometers and pressure sensors based on these devices. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In this study we show that protein tyrosine kinases and also protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in the uptake of Listeria monocytogenes by J774 macrophages to a different extent than in the uptake of inert latex beads. In addition, protein tyrosine kinases are necessary for the intracellular growth and survival of L. monocytogenes. The expression of the MAP kinase phosphatase MKP-1, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, is induced upon infection, and phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes by J774 cells overexpressing the MKP-1 protein is reduced compared to control cells. The decreased phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes as a result of the MKP-1 overexpression in J774 macrophages suggests that the activation of the MAP kinase(s) ERK-1 and/or ERK-2 is an essential requirement for the uptake of L. monocytogenes by J774 macrophages.
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