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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 116 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Six six-row Nordic spring barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) were assessed in the field in Finland (1994 and 1995) for resistance to Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal pathogen of scald, in artificially inoculated plots. The barleys were known not to contain major genes for resistance to scald and the purpose of these experiments was to identify quantitative differences in resistance to scald which might be exploitable in a breeding programme. Disease development was monitored, grain yield and yield components were recorded, and these data were compared with measurements taken from plants in plots kept free of disease. Data, averaged over both years, for disease development on the uppermost three leaves — areas under disease progress curves, terminal severity and apparent infection rates — indicated that ‘Verner’, ‘Pohto’ and ‘Pokko’ were symptomatically significantly more resistant to scald than ‘Arve’, ‘Loviisa’ and Jo 1599. Grain yields, thousand-grain weights, test weights and proportions of plump grains were all significantly reduced in plots inoculated with scald compared with those kept free of disease; ‘Verner’ appeared to be the most useful genotype for use in crossing programmes to improve scald resistance in Finnish barleys.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have used the inherent surface sensitivity of second-harmonic generation to develop an instrument for nonlinear optical microscopy of surfaces and interfaces. This optical technique is ideal for imaging nanometer-thick, chromophoric self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), which have been patterned using photolithographic techniques. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of second-harmonic generation microscopy to patterned SAMs of the noncentrosymmetric molecule calixarene and discuss the resolution and sensitivity limits of the technique. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 110 (1999), S. 881-889 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Pe(1), F″=2.5 branch feature of the (0,0) D 3Π0e–X 3Δ1 band system of 51VN was recorded as a function of an applied static electric field. The resultant Stark splitting and shifts were analyzed giving values of 3.07(7) D and 6.1(4) D for the X 3Δ1 and D 3Π0e states, respectively, for the magnitude of the permanent electric dipole moment, |μ|. Similarly, the Ree(0.5) branch feature of the (0,0) A 4Π3/2–X 4Σ− band system of 52CrN was recorded as a function of an applied static electric field and analyzed to produce |μ| values of 2.31(4) D and 5.42(2) D for the X 4Σ− and A 4Π3/2 states, respectively. In order to facilitate the dipole moment determinations for 52CrN it was necessary to record and analyze the field free spectrum of the (0,0) A 4Π3/2–X 4Σ− subband system. A comparison of the dipole moments for the first row monoxides and mononitrides is made and trends are discussed with reference to a molecular orbital correlation scheme. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Stark effect on the qR22(0,0.5) (ν=17 682.9251 cm−1) and qP11(0,1.5) (ν=17 682.1966 cm−1) branch features of the (0,0) B 2A1–X 2A1 band system of calcium methoxide, CaOCH3, was measured and analyzed to give the magnitude of the permanent electronic dipole moments, |μ|, of 1.58(8) D and 1.21(5) D for the X 2A1 and B 2A1 states, respectively. The dipole moments are compared with other monovalent calcium compounds and those predicted from a simple electrostatic model. Pure rotational transitions in the X 2A1 state were recorded using the pump/probe microwave-optical double resonance technique. The proton magnetic hyperfine splitting pattern confirms a C3v symmetry of the ground electronic state. The determined Fermi contact and dipolar parameters are: aF=−0.421(27) MHz; Taa=1.070(45) MHz, and |Tbb−Tcc|=0.292(47) MHz. The latter parameter is associated with the lifting of the K-degeneracy of this symmetric top molecule and mixing the I0=1/2 and I0=3/2 levels. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 110 (1999), S. 175-180 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; Hordeum vulgare ; Pyrenophora teres
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A half-diallel was made between five six-rowed Nordic spring barleys to study the genetics of resistance to net blotch. Twenty-five doubled-haploid (DH) lines from each cross and the parents were sown in hill plots in Finland in 1997 and 1998. The plots were artificially inoculated with Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg. and assessed for resistance to net blotch. There were statistically significant differences in resistance of the five parents to net blotch. General combining ability (GCA) of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) effects in the progeny were statistically significant in both years, but GCA effects predominated. Evidence for additive epistasis was minimal. Progeny of a particular cross were less resistant to net blotch than the better parent. The most resistant progeny were derived from the cross between the two most resistant parents, Pohto and WW7977, and resistance was governed by at least eleven effective factors. Narrow sense heritability estimates for resistance to net blotch were high during both years (0.84–0.99). It appears that net blotch resistance of progeny from crosses can be largely predicted from reactions of the parents. Quantitative resistance to net blotch can be further advanced by identification and incorporation of superior parents, from a screening such as reported here, into a recurrent selection breeding programme.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; scald ; Rhynchosporium secalis ; resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale cereale L.). These fungal isolates derived from four sites and three host varieties. Disease development was monitored on two leaves of seedlings in the greenhouse employing a standard scale, and on adult plants in the field by assessing the diseased area on the three uppermost leaves. A comparison was also made between the pathogenicity and virulence of ten Finnish and ten Canadian R. secalis isolates. The Finnish isolates varied in virulence, but with the exception of Algerian (CI 1179) seedlings and adult La Mesita (CI 7565) all seedlings and adult plants of the entire differential series were resistant to all isolates. Canadian isolates were, on average, less virulent than Finnish isolates. All the Nordic checks were susceptible to all Finnish and seven Canadian isolates, but differences in the degree of susceptibility were evident. Isolates of R. secalis from barley were non-pathogenic on rye, isolates from Elymus repens L. were non-pathogenic on barley and rye, and isolates from rye were only pathogenic on rye. Finnish R. secalis isolates contain no redundant pathogenic diversity. The differential series represents a useful, but as yet untapped, source of resistance to R. secalis for Finnish barley breeders.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 94 (1997), S. 201-208 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; net blotch ; Pyrenophora teres ; quantitative resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Resistance to Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg., the net blotch pathogen, was studied in six 6-row Nordic spring barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the field and in the greenhouse. The barley genotypes were: Arve, Agneta, Artturi, H6221, Pohto and WW7977. Disease progress was monitored in the field (1994 and 1995) in small artificially infected plots, sown at commercial seeding rates, and in infected hill plots (1994). Areas under the disease progress curves (AUDPC) and apparent infection rates (r) were calculated for the uppermost 3 or 4 leaves. Terminal severities (TS) were also recorded. Infection response of seedlings to a range of P. teres isolates was assessed in the greenhouse using a standard scale. In small plots in the field, Arve and Agneta were very susceptible to P. teres infection, as indicated by large values for AUDPC and TS. H6221 and WW7977 were highly resistant, while Artturi and Pohto were moderately resistant. In hill plots the situation was similar, except that Artturi and Pohto appeared less resistant than in the small plots. The relatively greater resistance of H6221 and WW7977 was reflected in seedling infection responses. According to the results of these experiments, H6221 and WW7977 possess adequate levels of quantitative resistance to P. teres to make them useful parents in future crossing programs aimed at improving net blotch resistance in Finnish spring barleys.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The effect of transition metal ion doping on the charge carrier dynamics in commercial TiO2 pigments has been investigated. The response to extended polychromatic irradiation was monitored by real-time measurements of microwave photoconductivity and photodielectric effects. In addition to intrinsic differences between the rutile and anatase polymorphs, shifts in the resonance frequency and quality factor of a tuned microwave cavity as a function of annealing, and foreign-ion incorporation provided a gauge of the influence of extrinsic trapping centres on photoactivity. Parallel luminescence studies revealed an extension in the lifetime of the emission band on doping, the energy associated with recombination being independent of the dopant ion. © 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0727
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Keywords: coal gas ; electrochemical separation ; hydrogen sulfide ; membrane ; removal efficiency model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract A mathematical model has been developed to predict the theoretical limiting H2S removal efficiency of an electrochemical membrane separator (EMS) in the presence of overwhelming levels of H2O and CO2 (as would be found in syn-gas). Thermodynamic principles gave the minimum potential requirements for cell operation. Factors including electrokinetics, mass transfer, chemical equilibria and internal resistance, occuring with application of current, were incorporated into the prediction. Theoretical predictions, which represent a limiting value, show achievable current efficiencies close to 100% for high H2S levels (1000ppm) at 90% removal. At this same removal level with 100 or 10ppm inlet gas, the predicted maximum current efficiencies dropped, due to concentration effects, to 93% and 40%, respectively. This solidifies the economic importance of obtaining close to 100% current efficiencies at sour gas levels compared to polishing applications where the removal, not the current efficiency, is more important. Predicted cell potentials were consistently in the same range, −0.450 to −0.550V, for all concentration levels at 90% removal. Comparison with experimental data gave good agreement; actual current efficiencies were consistently within 15% of the maximum predicted values at coinciding removal levels. However, actual potentials were lower (less negative) because of hydrogen leakage through the cell membrane. While lower potentials require less power, sulfur production at the anode was reduced.
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