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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The effect of transition metal ion doping on the charge carrier dynamics in commercial TiO2 pigments has been investigated. The response to extended polychromatic irradiation was monitored by real-time measurements of microwave photoconductivity and photodielectric effects. In addition to intrinsic differences between the rutile and anatase polymorphs, shifts in the resonance frequency and quality factor of a tuned microwave cavity as a function of annealing, and foreign-ion incorporation provided a gauge of the influence of extrinsic trapping centres on photoactivity. Parallel luminescence studies revealed an extension in the lifetime of the emission band on doping, the energy associated with recombination being independent of the dopant ion. © 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: ferredoxin, NADP photoreduction ; nitrogen limitation ; non cyclic electron transport ; photosynthesis ; Photosystem 1 and 2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Leaflets of soybean plants which are moderately inorganic nitrogen (N)-limited exhibit either no difference in the rate of net photosynthesis or as much as a 15–23% lower net photosynthesis rate per unit area than leaflets of N-sufficient plants [Robinson JM (1996) Photosynth Res 50: 133–148; Robinson JM (1997a) Int J Plant Sci 158: 32–43]. However, mature leaflets of N-limited soybean plants have a higher CO2photoassimilation rate per unit chlorophyll than leaflets of N-sufficient soybean plants at both moderate light intensity (≈500 µmol m-2s-1) and saturating light intensity (≈1200 µmol m-2s-1) [Robinson JM (1996) Photosynth Res 50: 133–148]. This study was undertaken to determine whether chloroplast thylakoids isolated from the leaflets of nitrogen-limited soybean plants displayed similar or higher linear electron transport rates (H2O → ferredoxin → NADP) per unit chlorophyll than thylakoids isolated from leaflets of N-sufficient plants. Chlorophyll concentration in reaction mixtures containing chloroplast thylakoids prepared from leaflets of N-limited plants was manipulated so that it was similar to the chlorophyll concentration in reaction mixtures of thylakoids prepared from leaflets of N-sufficient plants. Measurements of ferredoxin dependent, NADP dependent, O2photo-evolution in thylakoid isolates were carried out in saturating light (≈1500 µmol m-2s-1) and with $$NH_4^ + $$ (an uncoupler) in the chloroplast reaction mixtures. Chloroplast thylakoids isolated from N-limited soybean plant leaflets routinely had a 1.5 to 1.7 times higher rate of uncoupled, whole chain electron transport per unit chlorophyll in saturating light than did chloroplast thylakoids isolated from leaflets of N-sufficient plants. The results suggest that the photosystems and photosynthetic electron transport chain components are more active per unit Chl in leaflet chloroplast thylakoids of N-limited soybean plants than in thylakoids of N-sufficient plants.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 92 (1996), S. 81-87 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; net blotch ; Pyrenophora teres ; resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Seedlings of a differential barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) series (21 genotypes) and of six check genotypes were used in the greenhouse to assess variation in virulence among 20 single-spore isolates of the net blotch pathogen. Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f.teres Smedeg., collected from various sites in Finland. The experiment was run twice and symptom expression was recorded on the first three leaves. Analysis of second leaf symptom scores from Run 1 indicated differences in virulence between isolates, all of which were pathogenic, and differential resistance among the barleys. The virulence of P. teres isolates appeared to be conditioned by the host barley from which the isolate derived; the average virulence of isolates collected from a susceptible host was greater than that of isolates collected from a less susceptible host. Results from Run 2 were similar regarding resistance within the barleys, but variation in virulence among the P. teres isolates was not consistent with that from Run 1. CI 9819 caries duplicate genes for resistance to P. teres (Rpt1b and Rpt1c), and CI 7548 possesses Rpt3d. Both genotypes were highly resistant to all isolates. The Rpt1a gene of Tifang (CI4407) conferred resistance to all isolates in Run 2, but only to about half of the isolates in Run 1. The checks, including two of the symptomatically most resistant Nordic barley genotypes, were universally susceptible during these stringent tests. No selective pressure has been placed on Finnish isolates of P. teres through previous deployment of major resistance genes, and it is speculated that any variation in virulence among isolates is likely to be due to a combination of evolutionary forces including, natural selection, random genetic drift and gene flow.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; scald ; Rhynchosporium secalis ; resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale cereale L.). These fungal isolates derived from four sites and three host varieties. Disease development was monitored on two leaves of seedlings in the greenhouse employing a standard scale, and on adult plants in the field by assessing the diseased area on the three uppermost leaves. A comparison was also made between the pathogenicity and virulence of ten Finnish and ten Canadian R. secalis isolates. The Finnish isolates varied in virulence, but with the exception of Algerian (CI 1179) seedlings and adult La Mesita (CI 7565) all seedlings and adult plants of the entire differential series were resistant to all isolates. Canadian isolates were, on average, less virulent than Finnish isolates. All the Nordic checks were susceptible to all Finnish and seven Canadian isolates, but differences in the degree of susceptibility were evident. Isolates of R. secalis from barley were non-pathogenic on rye, isolates from Elymus repens L. were non-pathogenic on barley and rye, and isolates from rye were only pathogenic on rye. Finnish R. secalis isolates contain no redundant pathogenic diversity. The differential series represents a useful, but as yet untapped, source of resistance to R. secalis for Finnish barley breeders.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 94 (1997), S. 201-208 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; net blotch ; Pyrenophora teres ; quantitative resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Resistance to Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg., the net blotch pathogen, was studied in six 6-row Nordic spring barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the field and in the greenhouse. The barley genotypes were: Arve, Agneta, Artturi, H6221, Pohto and WW7977. Disease progress was monitored in the field (1994 and 1995) in small artificially infected plots, sown at commercial seeding rates, and in infected hill plots (1994). Areas under the disease progress curves (AUDPC) and apparent infection rates (r) were calculated for the uppermost 3 or 4 leaves. Terminal severities (TS) were also recorded. Infection response of seedlings to a range of P. teres isolates was assessed in the greenhouse using a standard scale. In small plots in the field, Arve and Agneta were very susceptible to P. teres infection, as indicated by large values for AUDPC and TS. H6221 and WW7977 were highly resistant, while Artturi and Pohto were moderately resistant. In hill plots the situation was similar, except that Artturi and Pohto appeared less resistant than in the small plots. The relatively greater resistance of H6221 and WW7977 was reflected in seedling infection responses. According to the results of these experiments, H6221 and WW7977 possess adequate levels of quantitative resistance to P. teres to make them useful parents in future crossing programs aimed at improving net blotch resistance in Finnish spring barleys.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: glucose ; hexose phosphates ; ozone ; photosynthesis ; respiratory substrates ; starch ; sucrose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of plants to ozone (O3) increased the foliar levels of glucose, glucose sources, e.g., sucrose and starch, and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), because in leaf cells, glucose is the precursor of the antioxidant, L-ascorbate, and glucose-6-phosphate is a source of NADPH needed to support antioxidant capacity. A further objective was to establish whether the response of increased levels of glucose, sucrose, starch and G6P in leaves could be correlated with a greater degree of plant tolerance to O3. Four commercially available Spinacia oleracea varieties were screened for tolerance or susceptibility to detrimental effects of O3 employing one 6.5 hour acute exposure to 25O nL O3 L-1 air during the light. One day after the termination of ozonation (29 d post emergence), leaves of the plants were monitored both for damage and for gas exchange characteristics. Cultivar Winter Bloomsdale (cv Winter) leaves were least damaged on a quantitative grading scale. The leaves of cv Nordic, the most susceptible, were approximately 2.5 times more damaged. Photosynthesis (Pn) rates in the ozonated mature leaves of cv Winter were 48.9% less, and in cv Nordic, 66.2% less than in comparable leaves of their non-ozonated controls. Stomatal conductance of leaves of ozonated plants was found not to be a factor in the lower Pn rates in the ozonated plants. At some time points in the light, leaves of ozonated cv Winter plants had significantly higher levels of glucose, sucrose, starch, G6P, G1P, pyruvate and malate than did leaves of ozonated cv Nordic plants. It was concluded that leaves of cv Winter displayed a higher tolerance to ozone mediated stress than those of cv Nordic, in part because they had higher levels of glucose and G6P that could be mobilized during diminished photosynthesis to generate antioxidants (e.g., ascorbate) and reductants (e.g., NADPH). Elevated levels of both pyruvate and malate in the leaves of ozonated cv Winter suggested an increased availability of respiratory substrates to support higher respiratory capacity needed for repair, growth, and maintenance.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: anaplerotic carbon metabolites ; dark respiration ; hexose phosphates ; nitrogen-limitation ; orthophosphate ; photosynthesis ; starch ; sucrose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Prolonged inorganic nitrogen (NO3 −+NH4 +) limitation of non-N2-fixing soybean plants affected leaflet photosynthesis rates, photosynthate accumulation rates and levels, and anaplerotic carbon metabolite levels. Leaflets of nitrogen-limited (N-Lim), 27–31-day-old plants displayed ≈ 15 to 23% lower photosynthesis rates than leaflets of nitrogen-sufficient (N-Suff) plants. In contrast, N-Lim plant leaflets displayed higher sucrose and starch levels and rates of accumulation, as well as higher levels of carbon metabolites associated with sucrose and starch synthesis, e. g., glycerate-3-phosphate and glucose phosphates, than N-Suff plant leaflets. Concurrently, levels of soluble protein, chlorophyll, and anaplerotic metabolites, e.g., malate and phosphoenolpyruvate, were lower in leaflets of N-Lim plants than N-Suff plants, suggesting that the enzymes of the anaplerotic carbon metabolite pathway were lower in activity in N-Lim plant leaflets. Malate net accumulation rates in the earliest part of the illumination period were lower in N-Lim than in N-Suff plant leaflets; however, by the midday period, malate accumulation rate in N-Lim plant leaflets exceeded that in leaflets of N-Suff plants. Further, soluble protein accumulation rates in leaflets of N-Suff and N-Lim plants were similar, and the rate of dark respiration, measured in the early part of the dark period, was higher in N-Lim plant leaflets than in N-Suff plant leaflets. It was concluded that during prolonged N-limitation, foliar metabolite conditions favored the channelling of a large proportion of the carbon assimilate into sucrose and starch, while assimilate flow through the anaplerotic pathway was diminished. However, in some daytime periods, there was a normal level of carbon assimilate channelled through the anaplerotic pathway for ultimate use in amino acid and protein synthesis.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 110 (1999), S. 175-180 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; Hordeum vulgare ; Pyrenophora teres
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A half-diallel was made between five six-rowed Nordic spring barleys to study the genetics of resistance to net blotch. Twenty-five doubled-haploid (DH) lines from each cross and the parents were sown in hill plots in Finland in 1997 and 1998. The plots were artificially inoculated with Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg. and assessed for resistance to net blotch. There were statistically significant differences in resistance of the five parents to net blotch. General combining ability (GCA) of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) effects in the progeny were statistically significant in both years, but GCA effects predominated. Evidence for additive epistasis was minimal. Progeny of a particular cross were less resistant to net blotch than the better parent. The most resistant progeny were derived from the cross between the two most resistant parents, Pohto and WW7977, and resistance was governed by at least eleven effective factors. Narrow sense heritability estimates for resistance to net blotch were high during both years (0.84–0.99). It appears that net blotch resistance of progeny from crosses can be largely predicted from reactions of the parents. Quantitative resistance to net blotch can be further advanced by identification and incorporation of superior parents, from a screening such as reported here, into a recurrent selection breeding programme.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-1901
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Abstract This paper shows how a historical case, the invention of the telephone, can be used to teach invention and design in a way that combines engineering, social sciences, and humanities. The historical problem of transmitting speech was turned into an active learning module, in which students sought to improve patents obtained by early telephone inventors like Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray, using equipment similar to what was available at the time. The result was a collaborative learning environment in which students from a wide range of majors worked in teams, eventually producing a patent application. As part of the project, they were allowed to search historical materials like the Bell notebooks, which were made available on line. This experience gave them a better understanding of the invention and design process.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-9222
    Keywords: Inertial manifolds ; exponential attractors ; approximate inertial manifolds ; Bubnov-Galerkin approximations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Suppose that the family of evolution equationsdu/dt+Au+f N (u)=0 possesses inertial manifolds of the same dimension for a sequence of nonlinear termsf N withf N →f in the C0 norm. Conditions are found to ensure that the limiting equationdu/dt+Au+f(u)=0 also possesses an inertial manifold. There are two cases. The first, where the manifolds for the family have a bounded Lipschitz constant, is straightforward and leads to an interesting result on inertial manifolds for Bubnov-Galerkin approximations. When the Lipschitz constant is unbounded, it is still possible to prove the existence of an exponential attractor of finite Hausdorff dimension for the limiting equation. This more general result is applied to a problem in approximate inertial manifold theory discussed by Sell (1993).
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