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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1998-02-10
    Description: Interaction of high-power laser light with materials often causes irreversible damage of the near-surface region. It is shown that copper single-crystal surfaces can be patterned by laser light. Irradiation with green light produced adatoms and vacancies, which self-organized into nanoscale pyramids. This restructuring can be removed by annealing. In contrast to green light, infrared laser irradiation at equivalent absorbed energy density did not produce any structural change. This, for metallic systems, unforeseen spectral difference in laser light action points to a concerted process as the source for structural modification, which involves long-lived primary excitation of localized d-electrons through interband transition together with phonon excitation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ernst -- Charra -- Douillard -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Jan 30;279(5351):679-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Departement de Recherche sur l'Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, SRSIM, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9445467" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We describe the brightfield microscopical detection of multiple DNA target sequences in cell and tissue preparations. For this purpose, chromosome-specific DNA probes labelled with biotin, digoxigenin or fluorescein were simultaneously hybridised and detected by enzyme cytochemistry using two horseradish peroxidase (PO) reactions and one alkaline phosphatase (APase) reaction. For triple-colour detection on single cell preparations, the combination of the enzyme precipitates PO/diaminobenzidine (DAB, brown colour), APase/fast red (FR, red colour) and PO/tetramethylbenzidine (TMB, green colour) resulted in an accurate detection of DNA targets. Embedding of the preparations in a thin cross-linked protein layer further stabilised the enzyme reaction products. For in situ hybridisation on tissue sections, however, this detection procedure showed some limitations with respect to both the stability of the APase/FR and PO/TMB precipitates, and the sequence of immunochemical layers in multiple-target procedures. For this reason, the APase/FR reaction was replaced by the APase/new fuchsin (NF, red colour) reaction and the washing steps after the PO/TMB reaction were restricted to the use of phosphate buffer pH 6.0. Furthermore, to improve the efficiency of the ISH reaction, APase/NF was applied in an avidin-biotin complex detection system and, to avoid target shielding in the triple-target ISH, the third primary antibody was applied prior to the second enzyme cytochemical reaction. These adaptations resulted in stable, well contrasting brown, red and green coloured precipitates. After quick haematoxylin counterstaining, the tissue preparations were directly mounted in phosphate buffer and, optionally, embedded in the cross-linked protein layer.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique for localizing specific nucleic acid sequences (DNA, RNA) in microscopic preparations of tissues, cells, chromosomes, and linear DNA fibers. To date, a wide variety of research and diagnostic applications of ISH have been described, making the technique an integral part of studies concerning gene mapping, gene expression, RNA processing and transport, the three-dimensional organization of the nucleus, tumor genetics, microbial infections, and prenatal diagnosis. In this review, I first describe the ISH procedure in short and then focus on the currently available non-radioactive probe-labeling and cytochemical detection methodologies that are utilized to visualize one or multiple different nucleic acid targets in situ with different colors. Special emphasis is placed on the procedures applying fluorescence and brightfield microscopy, the simultaneous detection of nucleic acids and proteins by combined ISH and immunocytochemistry, and, in addition, on the recent progress that has been made with the introduction of signal amplification procedures to increase the detection sensitivity of ISH. Finally, a comparison of fluorescence, enzyme cytochemical, and colloidal gold silver probe detection systems will be presented, and possible future directions of in situ nucleic acid detection will be discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 66 (1995), S. 4031-4033 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A fiber-optic sensor for weak interaction measuring of the electric field intensity in microwave fields is presented. The most remarkable features of the sensor are a low isotropy error, a good selectivity between the electric and magnetic field component, a high sensitivity, low field distortions, and inexpensive fabrication. A tiny microwave absorber mounted at the end of an optical fiber changes its temperature according to the electric field intensity. The absorber temperature is measured by making use of the optical transmittivity variation of a semiconductor element. A simple evaluation of the optical attenuation leads to a readout which is proportional to the square of the electric field strength. In order to overcome the problems due to fiber bend losses a mode acceptance filter is described. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Helicobacter pylori, in vitro iron limitation induces the expression of several iron repressible outer membrane proteins (IROMPs), which are not expressed under normal growth conditions. To substantiate their proposed role in virulence of H. pylori, we determined whether these IROMPs are also expressed in vivo. Therefore, we tested whether sera of patients with H. pylori infection contained antibodies against IROMPs. All sera from 20 H. pylori positive patients showed a clear immune response against a 77 kDa heme-binding IROMP in an immunoblot assay. Antibody responses against the other IROMPs were also found, but with lower frequencies. Serum samples from 18 patients negative for H. pylori infection did not show any immunoreactivity with IROMPs. These results indicate that the IROMPs of H. pylori are immunogenic and are expressed in vivo.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Genetic diversity of 32 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with gastritis, gastric or duodenal ulcer, carcinoma, or lymphoma was determined by repetitive sequence element polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), and by the new typing method restriction fragment end-labelling (RFEL). Furthermore, these two methods were used to investigate a possible correlation between clinical symptoms and the genetic background of Helicobacter pylori. Both REP-PCR and RFEL revealed 31 different patterns for the 32 strains tested, but the pair of isolates with identical REP-PCR patterns was not the same as the pair of isolates with identical RFEL patterns. Computer-assisted analysis of the DNA fingerprints was used to determine similarity coefficients. This analysis revealed no clustering of disease-specific strains by any of the two methods.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: Mesogenic unit ; Monomer exchange ; “Gel-to-liquid crystalline” phase transition ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Novel double-chained ammonium amphiphiles carrying one azobenzene moiety (I) have been synthesized. The bilayer-stabilizing effect of different azobenzenes (ABs) has been investigated by measuring the “gel-to-liquid crystalline” phase transition temperatures of the formed bilayers in water using differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that the stabilizing effect of the azobenzenes strongly depends on the substituents at the aromatic ring. The stabilizing effect increases in the sequence F 〈 H 〈 NO2 〈 CN 〈 OCH3 〈 N=N-Ph, which cannot be correlated with the electron-withdrawing or -donating properties of the substituents. It is concluded that dipole-dipole interactions between the ABs are of minor importance for the overall stabilization of the bilayer. Instead, other factors determine the strength of the van der Waals interactions between the ABs. In the bilayers the ABs form H-aggregates as is observed by the blue shift of the UV absorption maximum. This blue shift is not affected by the “gel-to-liquid crystalline” phase transition. Bilayers of I-N=N-Ph do not exchange monomers with vesicles of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, whereas all other investigated bilayers do. Compound I-N=N-Ph forms monolayers at the water-air interface, which are much more stable than the monolayers of the other investigated compounds.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase ; ACC synthase ; Dianthus caryophyllus ; ethylene ; flower senescence ; organ-specific gene expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and after treatment of fresh flowers with ethylene, production of ethylene and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes first started in the ovary followed by the styles and the petals. ACC oxidase was expressed in all the floral organs whereas, during the vase life, tissue-specific expression of the two ACC synthase genes was observed. After treatment with a high ethylene concentration, tissue specificity of the two ACC synthase genes was lost and only a temporal difference in expression remained. In styles, poor correlation between ethylene production and ACC synthase (CARAS1) gene expression was observed suggesting that either activity is regulated at the translational level or that the CARAS1 gene product requires an additional factor for activity. Isolated petals showed no increase in ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes when excised from the flower before the increase in petal ethylene production (before day 7); showed rapid cessation of ethylene production and gene expression when excised during the early phase of petal ethylene production (day 7) and showed a pattern of ethylene production and gene expression similar to the pattern observed in the attached petals when isolated at day 8. The interorgan regulation of gene expression and ethylene as a signal molecule in flower senescence are discussed.
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