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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Some YBa2Cu3O7-δ films and heterostructures prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) were analyzed in our laboratories by EPMA-EDX or WDX, RBS, SNMS and AES. It was found that in some cases the results of composition analysis can significantly deviate from each other. At least two main reasons for these deviations exist: the different lateral resolution and the application of different reference samples for the calibration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1114
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract In order to investigate the temporal behavior of dynamic flow processes, a movie version of particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a high framing capability has been developed. The experimental setup includes a copper vapor laser capable to produce pulse sequences with more than 100 pulses with a repetition rate of up to 30 kHz and a rotating drum camera to record the Mie scattering signals from the particles seeded to the flow. With this setup, image sequences with a number of consecutive images (40–70 depending on the image size) of a dynamic process can be taken on high resolution 36 mm film. To evaluate the 2-dimensional velocity vector fields, an algorithm based on the crosscorrelation of subareas in consecutive images has been developed and optimized in terms of computing time. The technique was applied to resolve the instationary flow field in a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine during the compression stroke.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 66.70. + f
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the anisotropic thermal conductivity in pyrolytic graphite by thermoreflectance. A laser-heated circular spot on a surface perpendicular to the planes developed into an elliptical temperature distribution which was recorded by a raster scanning technique at modulation frequencies ranging from 600 Hz to 100 kHz. The ratio of in-plane and perpendicular thermal conductivity was determined by fitting the phase of the temperature data with an analytical model, and was found to decrease with increasing modulation frequency. Highest conductivity values were considerably smaller than previously published data based on steady-state measurements. The frequency dependence and additional features in the phase profiles at high frequencies are discussed in view of sample surface preparation and the local nature of the thermoreflectance measurement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 42.65 H; 42.30; 07.07.D
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. In this article, we demonstrate the capability of a two-beam coupling photorefractive optical novelty filter of detecting changes in the amplitude or phase of optical images. These changes may either be continuous or discrete in time. The performance of the two-beam coupling novelty filter is investigated and expressions for the output contrast corresponding to phase and amplitude changes based on a novel, simple interference model of two-beam coupling are derived. These expressions are verified by experimental results on the novelty contrast, revealing that the amplitude contrast is not described correctly by the commonly accepted coupled-wave theory. The novelty filter was applied to the detection of temporally continuous phase changes provided by a gas flow and moving microscopic objects. A novel scheme for image subtraction is also demonstrated, showing the novelty filter’s ability to detect temporally discrete changes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Aquatic sciences 57 (1995), S. 106-118 
    ISSN: 1420-9055
    Keywords: Benthos ; fish ; vertical distribution ; predation risk ; selective fishing ; Lake Constance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To compare the vertical distributions of benthos and fish species of Upper Lake Constance (Bodensee), 552 benthos samples were taken with an Auerbach grab at four transects (10–250 m). An additional 54 samples (1–10 m) were collected elsewhere. Complementary data was taken from the literature. In winter, most fish feed on benthos, mainly chironomids, but in summer less than 5% do so. Formerly the bottom gill-netting aimed mainly at catchingCoregonus pidschian, but it now aims atPerca fluviatilis. Contrary to expectation, in winter the greatest abundance ofP. fluviatilis is much deeper (55 m) than that of its preferred food, i.e. chironomids (〈20 m). Comparably,C. pidschian also stayed deeper than its main food source (chironomids and mollusks).Lota lota, Salvelinus profundus andS. alpinus — unlike the unwanted cyprinids — also stay or stayed deeper than the attractive chironomids. It is argued that the fish reduce their “predation risk”, i.e. the risk of being gillnetted in the upper 50 m, by “selecting” the deeper less dangerous, but also less food-abundant habitat. Balancing predation risk against food abundance may have led to “survival of the deepest”.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 70 (1997), S. 1113-1115 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have grown by atomic layer epitaxy CdTe/MnTe tilted and serpentine superlattices. These heterostructures are formed by depositing in the step-flow growth mode fractional monolayer superlattices (CdTe)m(MnTe)n, with p=m+n∼1, onto 2 °A and 2 °B Cd0.95Zn0.05Te vicinal substrates. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal a good in-plane CdTe/MnTe separation and a uniform short-range superlattice period. The very existence of those superlattices imply that Te-based vicinal surfaces present a regular array of monomolecular steps, with no important step meandering and no step bunching. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 81 (1997), S. 2966-2972 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A photothermal microscope that provides micrometer lateral and submicrometer depth resolution was designed. Thermal conductivity measurements with modulation frequencies up to 12 MHz on single grains in polycrystalline diamond demonstrate its lateral resolution power even for a highly conducting material. Measured conductivities strongly depend on the averaged volume and values up to 2200 W/mK are found in the high frequency limit where the properties inside a grain are sampled. The capability of the instrument to measure thermal parameters on thin films is demonstrated for gold films evaporated on quartz with a thickness ranging from 20 to 1500 nm. Measurements reveal a strong thickness dependence for both thin film conductivity and the contact resistance between film and substrate. Thermal conductivity decreases monotonically from 230 to 30 W/mK whereas the contact resistance rises from 2×10−7 to 8×10−6 m2K/W with decreasing film thickness. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 80 (1996), S. 2013-2018 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The thermoreflectance technique is applied for imaging electric current distributions and thermal transfer in a temperature reference resistor heated by an alternating current. High-frequency scans (30 kHz) allow imaging of the current density distribution in conducting strips of the resistor while scans of amplitude and phase of the surface temperature variation at lower frequencies reveal plane, cylindrical, and spherical thermal waves. We investigate wave dimensionality as a function of heating geometry and thermal length, and present a simple method allowing a quantitative thermal analysis by exploiting the phase profile of cylindrical thermal waves. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 78 (1995), S. 5266-5269 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A simple dispersion equation for surface thermal waves propagating along a solid surface covered with a thin film of higher thermal conductivity is presented. It is shown to describe well phase measurements with a photothermal microscope carried out on metal films on glass substrates. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Generic algorithms have gained popularity as an effective procedure for obtaining solutions to traditionally difficult space mission optimization problems. In this paper, a brief survey of the use of genetic algorithms to solve astrodynamics problems is presented and is followed by new results obtained from applying a Pareto genetic algorithm to the optimization of low-thrust interplanetary spacecraft missions.
    Keywords: Astrodynamics
    Type: Applied Mechanics and Engineering
    Format: text
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