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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. To date, several hundred nonchimeric yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from the Centre d’Étude du Polymorphisme Humain containing polymorphic sequence-tagged sites have been mapped by fluoresence in situ hybridization (FISH) on human metaphase chromosomes. Because they carry an average of 1 Mb of human genomic DNA, CEPH YACs generate high-intensity in situ hybridization signals. The available set of cytogenetically and genetically anchored YACs, approximately one every 5–10 cM evenly spaced over almost the entire human genome, provides complex region-specific probes for molecular cytogenetics. YAC probes can be adapted with unlimited flexibility to specific FISH applications such as the study of chromosomal evolution. We have generated representational probes for YAC banding and painting of human chromosome 2 and its great ape homologs. Convergent inversions were found in the pericentric region of the gorilla and orangutan homologs of chromosome 2p.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The centromeric regions of human and primate chromosomes are characterized by diverged subsets of tandemly repeated α-satellite DNA. Comparison of the α-satellites on known homologous chromosomes in human and chimpanzee provides insight into the very rapid evolution of satellite DNA sequences and the mechanisms that shape complex genomes. By using oligonucleotide primers specific for a conserved region of human α-satellite DNA, we have amplified a chromosome-specific α-satellite subset from the chimpanzee genome by the polymerase chain reaction. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that clones pαPTR4N and pαPTR4H are homologous to sequences at the centromere of the chimpanzee chromosome 4. This α-satellite subset is organized as a series of pentameric (higher-order) repeats, operationally defined by digestion of genomic DNA with HaeIII, MboI, RsaI, SstI, and XbaI. The lengths of four independent centromeric arrays measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis varied between 800 and 3,500 kb (mean = 1,850 kb, SD = 1,000 kb). Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that chimpanzee chromosome 4 α-satellite is most closely related to the suprachromosomal subfamily II, which is evolutionarily different from the subfamily I to which the α-satellite on the homologous human chromosome 5 belongs. This implies that the human-chimpanzee sequence divergence has not arisen from a common ancestral α-satellite repeat(s) but instead represents concerted evolution of distinct repeats on homologous chromosomes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating central nervous system disorder. Even though the gene responsible has been positionally cloned recently, its etiology has remained largely unclear. To investigate potential disease mechanisms, we conducted a search for binding partners of the HD-protein huntingtin. With the yeast two-hybrid system, one such interacting factor, the huntingtin interacting protein-1 (HIP-1), was identified (Wanker et al. 1997; Kalchman et al. 1997) and the human gene mapped to 7q11.2. In this paper we demonstrate the localization of the HIP1 mouse homologue (Hip1) into a previously identified region of human-mouse synteny on distal mouse Chromosome (Chr) 5, both employing an IRS-PCR-based mapping strategy and traditional fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Alpha-satellite is a family of tandemly repeated DNA found at the centromeric regions of all human and primate chromosomes. Human α-satellite subsets are largely chromosome-specific and have been further grouped into four suprachromosomal families (SFs), each characterized by a unique set of monomeric types. Although chimpanzee and gorilla α-satellites share sufficient sequence similarity to fit the established SFs, the assumption that the derived human α-satellite consensus and monomeric types represent the sequence of ancestral repeats remains unestablished. By using oligonucleotide primers specific for a conserved region of human α-satellite DNA, we have PCR amplified, cloned, and characterized α-satellite sequences from the orangutan genome. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that orangutan α-satellite is formed by a single monomeric type that is significantly closer in percentage of sequence identity (mean = 92%, range = 89–96%) to the overall consensus of human α-satellite than to the monomeric types corresponding to the four SFs. Use of cloned sequences as hybridization probes to orangutan genomic DNA digested with a panel of restriction enzymes showed that most orangutan α-satellite subsets are characterized by a monomeric construction. The subset homologous to clone PPY2-5 is organized in distinct higher-order repeat structures consisting of 18 adjacent monomers. By FISH two clones, PPY3-4 and PPY3-5, proved to be specific for the α-satellite on the orangutan homologs of human Chromosomes (Chrs) 10 and 8, respectively. Our data indicate that there was an ancestral monomeric type displaying high sequence similarity to the overall human consensus from which the different great ape and human subsets and SFs may have originated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] O'Neill et al. propose that epigenetic pro-cesses help to drive karyotypic evolution in marsupials. Here we present evidence that global methylation patterns do not undergo dramatic changes in interspecific hybrids among three orders of placental mammals, indicating that the mechanisms ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To date, several hundred nonchimeric yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from the Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain containing polymorphic sequence-tagged sites have been mapped by fluoresence in situ hybridization (FISH) on human metaphase chromosomes. Because they carry an average of 1 Mb of human genomic DNA, CEPH YACs generate high-intensity in situ hybridization signals. The available set of cytogenetically and genetically anchored YACs, approximately one every 5–10 cM evenly spaced over almost the entire human genome, provides complex region-specific probes for molecular cytogenetics. YAC probes can be adapted with unlimited flexibility to specific FISH applications such as the study of chromosomal evolution. We have generated representational probes for YAC banding and painting of human chromosome 2 and its great ape homologs. Convergent inversions were found in the pericentric region of the gorilla and orangutan homologs of chromosome 2p.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Centromere ; Chromosome ; Concerted evolution ; CENP-B box sequence ; α-Satellite DNA ; Hominoids ; Primates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract CENP-B, a highly conserved centromere-associated protein, binds to α-satellite DNA, the centromeric satellite of primate chromosomes, at a 17-bp sequence, the CENP-B box. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an oligomer specific for the CENP-B box sequence, we have demonstrated the abundance of CENP-B boxes on all chromosomes (except the Y) of humans, chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. This sequence motif was not detected in the genomes of other primates, including gibbons, Old and New World monkeys, and prosimians. Our results indicate that the CENP-B box containing subtype of α-satellite DNA may have emerged recently in the evolution of the large-bodied hominoids, after divergence of the phylogenetic lines leading to gibbons and apes; the box is thus on the order of 15–25 million years of age. The rapid process of dispersal and fixation of the CENP-B box sequence throughout the human and great ape genomes is thought to be a consequence of concerted evolution of α-satellite subsets on both homologous and nonhomologous chromosomes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: FISH ; Fugu rubripes ; heterochromatin ; Huntingtin ; NOR ; pufferfish ; replication banding ; Tetraodon nigroviridis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Because of its highly compact genome, the pufferfish has become an important animal model in genome research. Although the small chromosome size renders chromosome analysis difficult, we have established both classical and molecular cytogenetics in the freshwater pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis (TNI). The karyotype of T. nigroviridis consists of 2n = 42 biarmed chromosomes, in contrast to the known 2n = 44 chromosomes of the Japanese pufferfish Fugu rubripes (FRU). RBA banding can identify homologous chromosomes in both species. TNI 1 corresponds to two smaller FRU chromosomes, explaining the difference in chromosome number. TNI 2 is homologous to FRU 1. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) allows one to map single-copy sequences, i.e. the Huntingtin gene, on chromosomes of the species of origin and also on chromosomes of the heterologous pufferfish species. Hybridization of total genomic DNA shows large blocks of (species-specific) repetitive sequences in the pericentromeric region of all TNI and FRU chromosomes. Hybridization with cloned human rDNA and classical silver staining reveal two large and actively transcribed rRNA gene clusters. Similar to the situation in mammals, the highly compact pufferfish genome is endowed with considerable amounts of localized repeat DNAs.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) ; fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) ; interphase cytogenetics ; somatic pairing ; subtelomeric regions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to study the spatial orientation of subtelomeric chromosome regions in the interphase nucleus. Compared to interstitial chromosomal sites, subtelomeres showed an increased number of somatic pairings. However, pairing frequency also depended on the specific regions involved and varied both between different subtelomeres and between different interstitial regions. An increased incidence of somatic pairing may play at least some role in the frequent involvement of the subtelomeres in cytogenetically cryptic chromosome rearrangements. In patients suffering from facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), which is associated with a deletion of subtelomeric repeats, the FSHD region on 4qter showed a changed pairing behavior, which could be indicative of a position effect and/or trans-sensing effect as a cause for disease.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: evolution ; fish molecular cytogenetics ; Leporinus ; satellite DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A chromosome-specific satellite DNA from the South American fish species Leporinus obtusidens has been isolated and characterized. Sequence analysis and Southern hybridization studies indicate that the cloned 483-bp fragment is 60% AT rich and appears to comprise two diverged monomers. A highly variable low-copy number polymorphism was detected and, thus, this satellite DNA may serve as a valuable genetic marker. Using a Southern blot approach, the cloned satellite DNA cross-hybridized strongly to the DNA of Leporinus elongatus but failed to detect homologous sequences in the genomes of other closely related Leporinus species and higher vertebrates. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization to mitotic metaphase spreads of L. obtusidens and L. elongatus, this satellite DNA was located to the (peri)centromeric region of one single chromosome pair in both species. As the cloned satellite DNA sequence clearly evolved along a chromosomal lineage and is highly variable, it may serve as a very useful marker in further genetic, molecular and cytogenetic studies of the genus Leporinus.
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