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  • 1
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    In:  Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft e. V. - Mitteilungen, Warszawa, American Geophysical Union, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 8-10, pp. L08304, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1997
    Keywords: Fracture ; Rock mechanics ; Physical properties of rocks ; Laboratory measurements ; Stress ; Muller
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  • 2
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    In:  J. Geophys. Res., Warszawa, American Geophysical Union, vol. 103, no. B7, pp. 15,239-15,253, pp. L08304, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1998
    Keywords: Stress ; Rock mechanics ; Fracture ; Physical properties of rocks ; Laboratory measurements ; 5104 ; Fracture ; and ; flow ; 8010 ; Structural ; geology ; Fractures ; and ; faults ; 8168 ; Tectonophysics ; Stresses--general ; 8439 ; Volcanology ; Physics ; and ; chemistry ; of ; magma ; bodies ; Muller ; JGR
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  • 3
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    In:  J. Geophys. Res., Hannover, Conseil de l'Europe, vol. 102, no. B8, pp. 17,843-17,856, pp. L17311, (ISSN 0343-5164)
    Publication Date: 1997
    Keywords: Seismology ; Inhomogeneity ; Diffraction ; Mueller ; Muller ; JGR
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  • 4
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    In:  Geophys. J. Int., Hannover, Elsevier, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 159-169, pp. L15S14, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1996
    Keywords: Ray tracing ; Seismology ; Seismics (controlled source seismology) ; Randomly layered ; Mueller ; Muller ; GJI
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-09-25
    Description: Cultivation of fungi for food by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) originated about 50 million years ago. The subsequent evolutionary history of this agricultural symbiosis was inferred from phylogenetic and population-genetic patterns of 553 cultivars isolated from gardens of "primitive" fungus-growing ants. These patterns indicate that fungus-growing ants succeeded at domesticating multiple cultivars, that the ants are capable of switching to novel cultivars, that single ant species farm a diversity of cultivars, and that cultivars are shared occasionally between distantly related ant species, probably by lateral transfer between ant colonies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mueller -- Rehner -- Schultz -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Sep 25;281(5385):2034-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉U. G. Mueller, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 2072, Balboa, Republic of Panama, and Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. S. A. Rehner, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apart.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9748164" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The availability of ATR devices equipped with a diamond internal reflection element makes it possible to obtain IR absorption spectra of organic substances deposited on inorganic substrates, for example, metals, glass or quartz. The quantitative comparison of these spectra performing mass calibration by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) layers are reported. The measurements were made in the common configuration with the specimen placed between the internal reflection element and the non-transparent support and in a second configuration with a thin transparent substrate (silicon) placed between the specimen and the internal reflection element. The band areas of the CH2 bands near 2900 cm–1 measured for the two ATR configurations were compared with those obtained from transmission measurements. The results can be partially interpreted by the equation for the effective thickness of thin layers on internal reflection elements. The relative absorbances of several bands of the TSE spectra obtained under different measuring conditions were also investigated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 42.10; 42.20; 78; 87
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The absorption coefficient μa, the scattering coefficient μs, and the scattering anisotropy factor g of porcine liver were studied in vitro using the integrating sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation in the wavelength range 450 to 700 nm. A reference preparation technique was developed using a dermatome providing specimens of 200 to 800 μm thickness without pre-freezing the tissue. The optical parameters as measured applying the reference preparation were compared to those measured after cryo-homogenisation. We found significant deviations of the scattering coefficient and the anisotropy factor which were compensated when the reduced scattering coefficient μs ′ was calculated. We also compared the effects of freezing reference specimens at -20 °C and at 77 K without homogenisation. For both freezing protocols noticeable deviations were found in all three optical parameters as well as in μs ′. The impact of tissue storage at 4 °C was measured in the range 4 to 48 h post mortem and showed a clear reduction of μa and a significant increase of μs even after 24 h of storage. Short-time storage of the specimens in saline solution reduced all three optical parameters significantly. In conclusion, the tissue preparation must be controlled in order to provide in vitro optical parameters that sufficiently mimic the in vivo situation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Key words Regeneration ; Pattern formation ; Vitamin A ; Homeosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Homeosis, the ectopic formation of a body part, is one of the key phenomena that prompted the identification of the essential selector genes controlling body organization. Shared elements of such homeotic genes exist in all studied animal classes, but homeotic transformations of the same order of magnitude as in insects, such as the duplication of the thorax in Drosophila mutants, have not been described in vertebrates. Here we investigate the capacity of retinoic acid to modify tail regeneration in amphibians. We show that retinoic acid causes the formation of an additional body segment in regenerating tails of Rana temporaria tadpoles. A second pelvic section, including vertebral elements, pelvic girdle elements and limb buds, forms at the mid-tail level. This is the first report of a homeotic duplication of a whole body segment in vertebrate axial regeneration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Keywords: Key words Heavy metals ; Sediment India
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The concentrations of various metals (Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd) were determined in recently deposited surface sediments of the Gomati River in the Lucknow urban area. Markedly elevated concentrations (milligrams per kilogram) of some of the metals, Cd (0.26–3.62), Cu (33–147), Ni (45–86), Pb (25–77), and Zn (90–389) were observed. Profiles of these metals across the Lucknow urban stretch show a progressive downstream increase due to additions from 4 major drainage networks discharging the urban effluents into the river. The degree of metal contamination is compared with the local background and global standards. The geoaccumulation index order for the river sediments is Cd〉Zn〉Cu〉Cr〉Pb. Significant correlations were observed between Cr and Zn, Cr and Cu, Cu and Zn and total sediment carbon with Cr and Zn. This study reveals that the urbanization process is associated with higher concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the Gomati River sediments. To keep the river clean for the future, it is strongly recommended that urban effluents should not be overlooked before their discharge into the river.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 72.20 ; 72.80 ; 78.65
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Fine-grained (d≈0.1 μm), polycrytalline SiC films were prepared on top of insulating and optically transparent sapphire substrates by means of a thermal crystallization technique. Optical absorption measurements indicate that the individual SiC grains consist of relatively defect-free β-SiC surrounded by high-defect density grain-boundary material. Nominally undoped material exhibits a low de conductivity (δ≈10−8 Ω−1 cm−1) in the dark and an efficient photoconductivity apon illumination with short-wavelength UV light. The temperature dependence of the de transport exhibits a quasi-Arrhenius-type behaviour with average activation energies of the order to 0.6 eV. A characteristic feature of this kind of transport is a continuous increase in activation energy with increasing film temperature. Upon doping with N, P and Al ions, the average activation energy is decreased and room temperature conductivities of the order of 0.1 Ω−1 cm−1 are reached. Doping with B ions, on the other hand, only leads to high-resistivity material. It is shown that the electronic transport in doped SiC-On-Sapphire (SiCOS) films can be successfully modelled in terms of a grain-boundary-dominated conduction process. In this process thermal activation across potential barriers at the grain-boundary surfaces competes with funneling through these same barriers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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