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  • 1995-1999  (20)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Genetic transformation of Wangiella dermatitidis was studied using three plasmid vectors (pAN7-1, pWU44, and pKK5) and both electroporation and polyethyleneglycol-mediated methods. pAN7-1 contains the E. coli hygromycin B (HmB) phosphotransferase (hph) gene. Expression of the hph gene confers resistance to antibiotic HmB. Selection for resistance, indicative of transformation, resulted in 10–203 HmB-resistant colonies/μg pAN7-1 on medium containing 100 μg HmB/ml. Strains of W. dermatitidis used in this study have innate sensitivity to HmB at a critical inhibitory concentration of 20–40 μg/ml. Vectors pWU44 and pKK5 contain a URA5 gene from Podospora anserina. A ura5 auxotroph of W. dermatitidis was transformed to prototrophy with pWU44 or pKK5 by complementation. Transformation frequencies for these two plasmids were between 17–50 transformants/μg vector DNA. Southern blotting analysis and polymerase chain reaction detection of DNA from putative transformants confirmed transformation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 45 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against soluble antigens from the ‘Ascochyta complex’ fungi. Specificity of MAbs was tested by ELISA using antigen-coated wells. MAbs secreted by the monoclonal hybridoma cell line JIM 44 recognized epitopes present in the antigen preparations from Mycosphaerella pinodes and Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella, but not those present in preparations from Ascochyta pisi. At high tissue culture supernatant concentration, MAbs produced by the monoclonal line JIM 45 recognized epitopes from all three fungi, however, on dilution of MAb the antigens from A. pisi were recognized preferentially to those from M. pinodes and P. medicaginis var. pinodella. On the basis of heat and periodate treatment of the antigens from the three fungi it can be concluded that the epitope recognized by JIM 44 is carbohydrate in nature, whereas that recognized by JIM 45 is proteinaceous in nature, carried on a glycoprotein antigen. Antigen preparations from other fungi, including other pea pathogens, non-pathogens associated with pea and other fungi closely related to the ‘Ascochyta complex’, were not detected with either of the two MAbs. Antigen preparations from peas could be used to differentiate healthy and infected seeds in a dot-blot assay, therefore indicating the potential of using the MAbs in the development of a diagnostic test for infection of Pisum seeds by the ‘Ascochyta complex’ fungi.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Bone mineral density — Bone mineral content — Childhood growth — Dual X-ray absorptiometry — Muscle strength.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. In this population-based study, the relationship between childhood weight and height, and adolescent bone mass and muscle strength have been studied in 39 girls and 48 boys. Total body and femoral neck bone mass measurements (bone mineral content, BMC and bone mineral density, BMD) were made by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured. Mean age at the time of measurement was 15.1 years for girls and boys. Results were individually linked to data on childhood (birth to 6 years of age) weight and height, taken from community health records. Childhood weight was found to be predictive of adolescent total body BMC (TBMC). However, this was not the case when correlating childhood weight and total body BMD (TBMD), suggesting that growth determines the size of the skeleton, whereas the density within that bone envelope is to a greater extent governed by other factors. Further, in a multiple regression model we found that the combined effect of childhood weight and height was significantly correlated with adolescent quadriceps muscle strength.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Bone metabolic markers — Predictor — Osteoporosis — Epidemiology — Bone mineral density.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether biochemical markers of bone turnover predict bone loss. The survey was carried out in Taiji, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. From a list of inhabitants aged 40–79 years, 400 participants (50 men and 50 women in each of four age groups) were selected randomly. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured, and blood and urine samples of all participants were examined to obtain values for eight biochemical markers: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone Gla protein (BGP), type I procollagen (carboxyterminal peptide of type I procollagen; PICP), cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide region of type I collagen (ICTP), and urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), pyridinoline (Pyr), and deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr). Each marker was evaluated as a predictor of the rate of bone change in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD over a 3-year period. The value of Pyr was significantly related to the change of lumbar spine BMD in men (P= 0.009), and that of BGP was found to be significant in women (P= 0.045). By contrast, none of the bone markers significantly correlated with bone loss at the femoral neck. The coefficient of determination at the lumbar spine was 5% and 7% at the femoral neck only. We conclude that biochemical markers of bone turnover cannot predict bone loss rates in middle-aged or elderly Japanese men and women over a 3-year period with sufficient accuracy for use in clinical decision making.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Laboratory toxicity data contrasting responses of aquatic organisms to insecticides are important for focusing on sensitive species (steepest exposure-response slope) exposed to aqueous concentrations of these insecticides in field studies. These data also allow prediction of expected responses of aquatic species to a range of insecticide concentrations in situ. Aqueous 48-h toxicity tests were performed to contrast responses of Daphnia magna Straus, Hyalella azteca Saussure, Chironomus tentans Fabricius, and Pimephales promelas Rafinesque to acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides: chlorpyrifos, aldicarb, and chlordane. As expected, invertebrates tested (H. azteca, C. tentans, and D. magna) were ≥ 200 times more sensitive than the vertebrate P. promelas to chlorpyrifos exposures. H. azteca was approximately 3.5 times more sensitive to chlorpyrifos (453% mortality/μg/L) than D. magna (128% mortality/μg/L). For both aldicarb and chlordane, C. tentans was the most sensitive species tested (2.44 and 2.54% mortality/μg/L, respectively). Differences in chlordane potency for test species varied only by a factor of approximately 2–3 (0.88% mortality/μg/L for H. azteca to 2.54% mortality/μg/L for C. tentans). Although point estimates of population responses such as LC50s, NOECs, and LOECs are of some utility for predicting effects of pesticides in aquatic systems, exposure-response slopes are also useful for extrapolation of laboratory data to diverse field situations, especially where sediment sorption may regulate insecticide exposure or bioavailability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A physics-based approach to gamma-ray response-function generation is presented in which the response of CdZnTe detectors is modeled from first principles. Numerical modeling is used to generate response functions needed for spectrum analysis for general detector configurations (e.g., electrode design, detector materials and geometry, and operating conditions). With numerical modeling, requirements for calibration and characterization are significantly reduced. Elements of the physics-based model, including gamma-ray transport, charge carrier drift and diffusion, and circuit response, are presented. Calculated and experimental gamma-ray spectra are compared for a coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Longitudinal stone toe is one of the most reliable and economically attractive approaches for stabilizing eroding banks in incised channels. However, aquatic habitat provided by stone toe is inferior to that provided by spur dikes. In order to test a design that combined features of stone toe and spurs, eleven stone spurs were placed perpendicular to 170 m of existing stone toe in Goodwin Creek, Mississippi, and willow posts were planted in the sandbar on the opposite bank. Response was evaluated by monitoring fish and habitats in the treated reach and an adjacent comparison reach (willow post planting and standard toe without spurs) for four years. Furthermore, physical habitats within the treated reach were compared with seven reaches protected with standard toe on a single date three years after construction. Overall results indicated that spur addition resulted in modest increases in baseflow stony bankline, water width and pool habitat availability, but had only local effects on depth. These relatively small changes in physical habitat were exaggerated seasonally by beaver dams that appeared during periods of prolonged low flow in late Summer and Autumn. Physical changes were accompanied by shifts in fish species composition away from a run-dwelling assemblage dominated by large numbers of cyprinids and immature centrarchids toward an assemblage containing fewer and larger centrarchids. Biological responses were at least partially due to the effects of temporary beaver dams.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Combinations of vegetation and structure were applied to control streambank erosion along incised stream channels in northwest Mississippi. Eleven sites along seven channels with contributing drainage areas ranging from 12–300 km2 were used for testing. Tested configurations included eroding banks protected by vegetation alone, vegetation with structural toe protection, vegetation planted on re-graded banks, and vegetation planted on regraded banks with toe protection. Monitoring continued for up to 10 years, and casual observation for up to 18 years. Sixteen woody and 13 nonwoody species were tested. Native woody species, particularly willow, appear to be best adapted to stream-bank environments. Sericea lespedeza and Alamo switchgrass were the best nonwoody species tested. Vegetation succeeded in reaches where the bed was not degrading, competition from kudzu was absent, and bank slopes were stabilized by grading or toe protection. Natural vegetation invaded planted and unplanted stable banks composed of fertile soils. Designs involving riprap toe protection in the form of a longitudinal dike and woody vegetation appeared to be most cost-effective. The exotic vine kudzu presents perhaps the greatest long-term obstacle to restoring stable, functional riparian zones along incised channels in our region. (KEY TERMS: vegetation; streambank protection; bioengineering; stream restoration; channel incision; riparian zone.)
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Channel incision is a pervasive problem that threatens infrastructure, destroys arable land, and degrades environmental resources. A program initiated in 1983 is developing technology for rehabilitation of watersheds with erosion and sedimentation problems caused by incision. Demonstration projects are located in 15 watersheds in the hills of northwest Mississippi. Watershed sizes range from 0.89 to 1,590 km2, and measured suspended sediment yields average about 1,100 t km-2-yr-1. Water quality is generally adequate to support aquatic organisms, but physical habitat conditions are poor. Rehabilitation measures, which are selected and laid out using a subjective integration of hydraulic and geotechnical stability analyses, include grade controls, bank protection, and small reservoirs. Aquatic habitat studies indicate that stone-protected stilling basins below grade-control weirs and habitats associated with drop pipes and stone spur dikes are assets to erosion-damaged streams. Additional recovery of habitat resources using modified stone stabilization designs, woody vegetation plantings, and reservoir outlets designed to provide non-zero minimum flows is under investigation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7594
    Keywords: time-parallel simulation ; asynchronous transfer mode networks ; burst-level simulation ; statistical multiplexer ; cellloss ratio ; broadband integrated services digital network
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The simulation of high-speed telecommunication systems such as ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks has generally required excessively long run times. This paper reviews alternative approaches using parallelism to speed up simulations of discrete event systems, and telecommunication networks in particular. Subsequently, a new simulation method is introduced for the fast parallel simulation of a common network element, namely, a work-conserving finite capacity statistical multiplexer of bursty ON/OFF sources arriving on input links of equal peak rate. The primary performance measure of interest is the cell loss ratio, due to buffer overflows. The proposed method is based on two principal techniques: (1) the derivation of low-level (cell level) statistics from a higher level (burst level) simulation and (2) parallel execution of the burst level simulation program. For the latter, atime-division parallel simulation method is used where simulations operating at different intervals of simulated time are executed concurrently on different processors. Both techniques contribute to the overall speedup. Furthermore, these techniques support simulations that are driven by traces of actual network traffic (trace-driven simulation), in addition to standard models for source traffic. An analysis of this technique is described, indicating that it offers excellent potential for delivering good performance. Measurements of an implementation running on a 32 processor KSR-2 multiprocessor demonstrate that, for certain model parameter settings, the simulator is able to simulate up to 10 billion cell arrivals per second of wallclock time.
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