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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Keywords: 31.30 G ; 61.70 Y
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Using the111Cd-TDPAC (time differential perturbated angular correlation) method, the pressure dependence of the electric field gradient (EFG) in Sb and Sb1−x M x (M=ln, Zn, Ge, Pb, Cd, Sn) was investigated. The application of a phenomenological ansatz for the parametrisation of the pressure and temperature dependence of the EFG made it possible to combine temperature data gained in former studies [1], [2] with the pressure dependent data presented in this paper. The resulting pressure dependence of −2±0.2 MHz/kbar is shown to be independent of concentration and element of admixture. Results for the volume and explicit temperature dependence agree with existing information on the mixed system Sb1−x M x (M=ln, Zn, Ge, Pb, Cd, Sn); the investigation of the EFG in Sb1−x−y M x Pb y showed that the resulting EFG may be interpreted as the weighted sum of the individual contributions of the two metals.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Für die Bestimmung des hochwirksamen Insecticids DDVP wurden drei voneinander unabhängige Methoden gefunden. Die erste beruht auf der jodometrischen Bestimmung des durch alkalische Spaltung gebildeten Dichloracetaldehyds. Bei der zweiten wird der durch alkalische Hydrolyse abgespaltene Phosphorsäuredimethylester acidimetrisch erfaßt. Diese beiden Arbeitsmethoden eignen sich für die Bestimmung von Makromengen DDVP, während die dritte Methode Mengen bis auf wenige Mikrogramme herunter erfaßt. Sie beruht auf der Umsetzung von DDVP in wäßriger Lösung mit Resorcin und Alkali unter Bildung eines gelben Farbstoffes mit grüner Fluorescenz, der colorimetrisch gemessen werden kann.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effect of elevated [CO2] on biomass, nitrate, ammonium, amino acids, protein, nitrate reductase activity, carbohydrates, photosynthesis, the activities of Rubisco and six other Calvin cycle enzymes, and transcripts for Rubisco small subunit, Rubisco activase, chlorophyll a binding protein, NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, transketolase, plastid fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was investigated in tobacco growing on 2, 6 and 20 m M nitrate and 1, 3 and 10 m M ammonium nitate. (i) The growth stimulation in elevated [CO2] was attenuated in intermediate and abolished in low nitrogen. (ii) Elevated [CO2] led to a decline of nitrate, ammonium, amino acids especially glutamine, and protein in low nitrogen and a dramatic decrease in intermediate nitrogen, but not in high nitrogen. (iii) Elevated [CO2] led to a decrease of nitrate reductase activity in low, intermediate and high ammonium nitrate and in intermediate nitrate, but not in high nitrate. (iii) At low nitrogen, starch increased relative to sugars. Elevated [CO2] exaggerated this shift. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase transcript increased in low nitrogen, and in elevated [CO2]. (iv) In high nitrogen, sugars rose in elevated [CO2], but there was no acclimation of photosynthetic rate, only a small decrease of Rubisco and no decrease of other Calvin cycle enzymes, and no decrease of the corresponding transcripts. In lower nitrogen, there was a marked acclimation of photosynthetic rate and a general decrease of Calvin cycle enzymes, even though sugar levels did not increase. The decreased activities were due to a general decrease of leaf protein. The corresponding transcripts did not decrease except at very low nitrogen. (v) It is concluded that many of the effects of elevated [CO2] on nitrate metabolism, photosynthate allocation, photosynthetic acclimation and growth are due to a shift in nitrogen status.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Higher rates of nitrate assimilation are required to support faster growth in enhanced carbon dioxide. To investigate how this is achieved, tobacco plants were grown on high nitrate and high light in ambient and enhanced (700 μmol mol–1) carbon dioxide. Surprisingly, enhanced carbon dioxide did not increase leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity in the middle of the photoperiod. Possible reasons for this anomalous result were investigated. (a) Measurements of biomass, nitrate, amino acids and glutamine in plants fertilized once and twice daily with 12 mol m–3 nitrate showed that enhanced carbon dioxide did not lead to a nitrate limitation in these plants. (b) Enhanced carbon dioxide modified the diurnal regulation of NR activity in source leaves. The transcript for nia declined during the light period in a similar manner in ambient and enhanced carbon dioxide. The decline of the transcript correlated with a decrease of nitrate in the leaf, and was temporarily reversed after re-irrigating with nitrate in the second part of the photoperiod. The decline of the transcript was not correlated with changes of sugars or glutamine. NR activity and protein decline in the second part of the photoperiod, and NR is inactivated in the dark in ambient carbon dioxide. The decline of NR activity was smaller and dark inactivation was partially reversed in enhanced carbon dioxide, indicating that post-transcriptional or post-translational regulation of NR has been modified. The increased activation and stability of NR in enhanced carbon dioxide was correlated with higher sugars and lower glutamine in the leaves. (c) Enhanced carbon dioxide led to increased levels of the minor amino acids in leaves. (d) Enhanced carbon dioxide led to a large decrease of glycine and a small decrease of serine in leaves of mature plants. The glycine:serine ratio decreased in source leaves of older plants and seedlings. The consequences of a lower rate of photorespiration for the levels of glutamine and the regulation of nitrogen metabolism are discussed. (e) Enhanced carbon dioxide also modified the diurnal regulation of NR in roots. The nia transcript increased after nitrate fertilization in the early and the second part of the photoperiod. The response of the transcript was not accentuated in enhanced carbon dioxide. NR activity declined slightly during the photoperiod in ambient carbon dioxide, whereas it increased 2-fold in enhanced carbon dioxide. The increase of root NR activity in enhanced carbon dioxide was preceded by a transient increase of sugars, and was followed by a decline of sugars, a faster decrease of nitrate than in ambient carbon dioxide, and an increase of nitrite in the roots. (f) To interpret the physiological significance of these changes in nitrate metabolism, they were compared with the current growth rate of the plants. (g) In 4–5-week-old plants, the current rate of growth was similar in ambient and enhanced carbon dioxide (≈ 0·4 g–1 d–1). Enhanced carbon dioxide only led to small changes of NR activity, nitrate decreased, and overall amino acids were not significantly increased. (h) Young seedlings had a high growth rate (0·5 g–1 d–1) in ambient carbon dioxide, that was increased by another 20% in enhanced carbon dioxide. Enhanced carbon dioxide led to larger increases of NR activity and NR activation, a 2–3-fold increase of glutamine, a 50% increase of glutamate, and a 2–3-fold increase in minor amino acids. It also led to a higher nitrate level. It is argued that enhanced carbon dioxide leads to a very effective stimulation of nitrate uptake, nitrate assimilation and amino acid synthesis in seedlings. This will play an important role in allowing faster growth rates in enhanced carbon dioxide at this stage.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Antibodies raised against a peptide fragment (residues 60–456) of potato sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) were used to investigate whether potato plants contain multiple forms of SPS. When a partially purified preparation of SPS from cold-stored potato tubers was separated on 5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), four immunopositive bands were found with estimated molecular weights of 125, 127, 135 and 145 kDa. These bands were also found in rapidly prepared extracts and were termed SPS-1a, SPS-1b, SPS-2 and SPS-3, respectively. Direct evidence that SPS-1a and SPS-1b represent active SPS was provided by the finding that both are greatly reduced in plants expressing an antisense sequence derived from the potato leaf SPS gene. SPS-2 was not decreased in the antisense plants, indicating that it has a significantly different sequence. Evidence that SPS-2 represents active SPS was obtained by showing that the amount of SPS-1a and SPS-1b protein remaining in the leaves and tubers of antisense potato plants was too low to account for the remaining SPS activity. The four immunopositive SPS forms had different tissue distributions. SPS-1a was the major form in all tissues except petals, sepals and stamens. SPS-1b and SPS-2 were absent in very young growing tissues but were present as minor forms in source leaves and sprouting tubers. The SPS-1b level was especially high in petals and sepals, and the SPS-2 level was especially high in the stamens. SPS-3 was only detected in very young tissues. The four forms also showed different responses to low temperature. Transfer of tubers to 4°C led to a specific and reversible increase of SPS-1b during the next 4 d. The appearance of SPS-1b correlated with a change in the kinetic properties of SPS that has recently been shown (Hill et al. 1996) to play a key role in triggering the accumulation of sugars in cold-stored tubers. The appearance of SPS-1b protein at low temperature was accompanied by an increase of SPS transcript. Incubation of tuber slices with calyculin A and okadaic acid to alter the phosphorylation state of SPS did not lead to appearance or disappearance of SPS-1b. It is concluded that potato plants contain several forms of SPS that have different functions in growing and mature tissues, in flower parts, and in acclimation to low temperature.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8145
    Keywords: Sheet metal parts ; computer-aided process planning ; bending tools ; laminated object modelling ; neural networks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The manufacturing of complex bent parts can be supported effectively by computer-aided planning methods. Software systems are already available for unfolding, laser cutting and bending sequence determination. The paper focuses on methods that support the design of non-standard bending tools and the flexible manufacturing of such tools using laminated object modelling (LOM) technology. The developed system allows for concurrent planning and manufacturing of bending parts and tools. Within the framework of this system, neural networks are applied for automated tool design.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Optical and quantum electronics 27 (1995), S. 1257-1271 
    ISSN: 1572-817X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The fundamentals of the manufacturing process of laser beam cutting are discussed. The equipment necessary for working on two- and three-dimensional applications is described. Criteria for characterizing cutting quality and cutting applications with different laser types are presented. Both modelling of the process and study of process emissions are involved in optimizing the process and system performance, and an overview is given of research results in these areas.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 72 (1998), S. 1323-1325 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present a systematic analysis of the hole transport over heterobarriers in the InGaAs(P)/InP material system. The experiments have been performed on our recently developed all-optical switching structures [C. Knorr et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4212 (1996)], which offer an elegant access to hole transport rates. We have varied barrier thickness, barrier height, bias voltage, and temperature. The time constants vary from 30 μs to 30 ns. Our model calculations, including all heavy and light hole subbands, show that only thermally assisted tunneling can explain both the temperature and electric field dependence of the transport rates. We have extracted the activation energies. The hole capture time is determined as 250±50 fs. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 71 (1997), S. 2127-2129 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Spontaneously ordered Ga0.47In0.53As grown on substrates with the (001) surface tilted 4° towards {111}B are studied using spectroscopic methods as well as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction and dark-field transmission electron microscopy. The single variant ordering is proved by the absence of one class of the ordering induced 〈fraction SHAPE="CASE"〉12{111}B superlattice spots in transmission electron diffraction patterns as well as by the tilted polarization of the photoluminescence emerging from the samples cleaved edge. The temperature dependence of the luminescence peak position shows an anomalous behavior at low temperatures and a strong dependence of the peak position on the excitation power. From low temperature absorption measurements, we find a band gap reduction of 37 meV and a valence band splitting of 13.2 meV. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We compare the field screening behavior of quantum-confined Stark effect modulator structures where the GaInAsP/InP heterojunction is in the intrinsic (standard structure) or in the doped regions (modified structure) at working wavelengths of 1.55 and 1.3 μm. The modified structures are obtained by expanding the GaInAsP confinement layers into the p-doped and n-doped regions without changing the total intrinsic layer thickness. The effectiveness of the InP heterobarriers for the holes on the p-side and for the electrons on the n-side is thereby lowered. A significant reduction of field screening for the modified structures is achieved. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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