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  • 1995-1999  (190)
  • 1970-1974  (9)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Cacao ; Theobroma cacao ; Genetic diversity ; Crop evolution ; RAPD
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Neotropical tree crops are affected by a combination of biological and human factors that complicate the study of genetic diversity and crop evolution. Genetic diversity and relationships among southern Mexican populations and horticultural collections of Theobroma cacao (chocolate, cocoa, cacao) are examined in light of the agricultural practices of the Maya. Collections of cacao were obtained from the extremes of its geographic range including archeological sites in southern Mexico where cacao was first domesticated. Genetic diversity was assayed by 57 informative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker loci. A unique sample of the total diversity found in this study exists in the southern Mexican populations. These populations are significantly different from all other cacao with regards to their profile of RAPD bands, including the ‘criollo’ variety, their morphological and geographical group. A population of cacao found in a sinkhole (cenote) in northern Yucatan with genetic affinities to populations in Chiapas suggests the Maya maintained plants far away from their native habitat. This finding concurs with known agroforestry practices of the Maya. Modern efforts to increase germplasm of tropical tree crops such as cacao should carefully examine archeological sites where genetic diversity, either deliberately or by chance, was collected and maintained by ancient cultures.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We study the annual frequency of occurrence of intense geomagnetic storms (Dst 〈 −100 nT) throughout the solar activity cycle for the last three cycles and find that it shows different structures. In cycles 20 and 22 it peaks during the ascending phase, near sunspot maximum. During cycle 21, however, there is one peak in the ascending phase and a second, higher, peak in the descending phase separated by a minimum of storm occurrence during 1980, the sunspot maximum. We compare the solar cycle distribution of storms with the corresponding evolution of coronal mass ejections and flares. We find that, as the frequency of occurrence of coronal mass ejections seems to follow very closely the evolution of the sunspot number, it does not reproduce the storm profiles. The temporal distribution of flares varies from that of sunspots and is more in agreement with the distribution of intense geomagnetic storms, but flares show a maximum at every sunspot maximum and cannot then explain the small number of intense storms in 1980. In a previous study we demonstrated that, in most cases, the occurrence of intense geomagnetic storms is associated with a flaring event in an active region located near a coronal hole. In this work we study the spatial relationship between active regions and coronal holes for solar cycles 21 and 22 and find that it also shows different temporal evolution in each cycle in accordance with the occurrence of strong geomagnetic storms; although there were many active regions during 1980, most of the time they were far from coronal holes. We analyse in detail the situation for the intense geomagnetic storms in 1980 and show that, in every case, they were associated with a flare in one of the few active regions adjacent to a coronal hole.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract We have analysed the influence of the initial pH of the medium and the quantity of aeration provided during the batch fermentation of solutions of d-xylose by the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (34438 ATCC). The initial pH was altered between 3.5 and 6.5 whilst aeration varied between 0.0 and 0.3 vvm. The temperature was kept at 30 °C during all the experiments. Hansenula polymorpha is known to produce high quantities of xylitol and low quantities of ethanol. The most favourable conditions for the growth of xylitol turned out to be: an initial pH of between 4.5 and 5.5 and the aeration provided by the stirring vortex alone. Thus, at an initial pH of 5.5, the maximum specific production rate (μm) was 0.41 h−1, the overall biomass yield (Y x/s G) was 0.12 g g−1, the specific d-xylose-consumption rate (q s ) was 0.075 g g−1 h−1 (for t = 75 h), the specific xylitol-production rate (q Xy ) was 0.31 g g−1 h−1 (for t = 30 h) and the overall yields of ethanol (Y E/s G) and xylitol (Y Xy/s G) were 0.017 and 0.61 g g−1 respectively. Both q s and q Xy decreased during the course of the experiments once the exponential growth phase had finished.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.30 ; 42.40 ; 42.70
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Changes in the angular Bragg selectivity of volume holograms stored in photorefractive LiNbO3 are analysed for different experimental conditions in the transmission geometry. The effects of the refractive-index-change amplitude, the grating period, the modulation depth, and the wave-front modulation of the signal beam are considered. A very good agreement of the results with the off-Bragg diffraction theory is observed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The Argentinean semiarid Chaco region is climatically suitable for cattle raising and has an average annual rainfall of 550 mm, concentrated from November to February. There, large areas are affected by high salinity; thus, perennial forages suitable for this region must combine adequate salt and drought tolerance. Panicum coloratum is a C4 perennial grass adapted over a wide range of soil and rainfall conditions, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of two cultivars (Klein Verde and Bambatsi) to salinity. Under controlled conditions, 100 and 200 mmol l−1 NaCl delayed germination and significantly reduced germination percentages and seedling survival in both cultivars. However, in the field, factors other than salinity (possibly drought) had a large impact on plant survival. In short-term experiments under controlled environmental conditions, the vegetative growth of cultivar Klein Verde was less affected by salinity than Bambatsi. The cumulative growth over one year in a saline plot was also higher in cultivar Klein Verde. This cultivar also had higher shoot K+/Na+ ratios under salinity, as a result of higher K+ concentrations, and accumulated more triglycerides in roots. These features have been associated with salt tolerance in other species.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Variability in the response to salinity within Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass) germplasm was evaluated under field conditions, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic relatedness among cultivars/accessions. RAPD analysis showed a clustering of cultivars of known relatedness: cv. Pioneer and accessions Local and Trancas (derived from an old Pioneer pasture established in saline soil) belonged to the same cluster, Katambora to another and tetraploid Boma and Callide could be further separated, Boma belonging to a fourth, distant cluster. Field experiments were laid out in two types of plots: control [with electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (EC) = 3·64 dS m−1] and saline (EC=13·10 dS m−1) and two experiments were carried out: one to evaluate the effects of salinity on emergence and establishment, and the other, with a uniform number of plants per plot, to evaluate yield under saline conditions. All cultivars/accessions had salinity-associated decreases in dry-matter (DM) production during the establishment phase. After this stage, 1-year DM yield was similar in all cultivars within each salinity level and production in the saline plots was significantly lower than in controls only in cv. Callide and accession Trancas. Second-year production in the non-saline plots increased by 30% on average over the previous year, whereas an average 40% reduction was observed in the saline plots. Thus, salinity had a negative effect on Rhodes grass establishment and persistence. The cultivars could not be ranked unequivocally by production under saline conditions, but tetraploids Boma and Callide may be said to be less tolerant than the rest on the basis of an increased proportion of dead leaves and decreased number of stolons observed in the saline plot.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Interplanetary physics ; Interplanetary shocks ; Solar wind plasma ; Solar physics ; Flares and mass ejections
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Interplanetary transients with particular signatures different from the normal solar wind have been observed behind interplanetary shocks and also without shocks. In this paper we have selected four well-known transient interplanetary signatures, namely: magnetic clouds, helium enhancements and bidirectional electron and ion fluxes, found in the solar wind behind shocks, and undertaken a correlative study between them and the corresponding solar observations. We found that although commonly different signatures appear in a single interplanetary transient event, they are not necessarily simultaneous, that is, they may belong to different plasma regions within the ejecta, which suggests that they may be generated by complex processes involving the ejection of plasma from different solar regions. We also found that more than 90% of these signatures correspond to cases when an Hα flare and the eruption of a filament occurred near solar central meridian between 1 and 4 days before the observation of the disturbance at 1 AU, the highest association being with flares taking place between 2 and 3 days before. The majority of the Hα flares were also accompanied by soft X-ray events. We also studied the longitudinal distribution of the associated solar events and found that between 80% and 90% of the interplanetary ejecta were associated with solar events within a longitudinal band of ±30° from the solar central meridian. An east-west asymmetry in the associated solar events seems to exist for some of the signatures. We also look for coronal holes adjacent to the site of the explosive event and find that they were present almost in every case.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. An isogenic pair of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O9 strains, with and without virulence plasmid, was used to study the plasmid role in the infection of BALB/c mice by oral, intraperitoneal, and intravenous routes. The plasmid-bearing strain, but not its plasmid-less derivative, caused enteric infection after challenge by all three routes. The virulence plasmid did not influence the peritoneal clearance of yersiniae, but only the plasmid-bearing yersiniae were able to move from the peritoneal cavity to the bloodstream, and thus they spread to spleen and liver. Moreover, plasmid-bearing yersiniae were able to move from the liver to the gallbladder, and they shed in bile into the intestine. Western blot analysis of antibody responses to chromosomally encoded outer membrane proteins revealed similar patterns with sera from mice challenged with each one of the two strains by intraperitoneal route. In contrast, only the plasmid-bearing strain elicited an antibody response to these antigens in mice challenged by oral route. Although mice experimentally infected with plasmid-bearing O9 yersiniae developed an enteric infection, irrespective of the inoculation route, differences between the first steps in infection by oral and parenteral routes may be important, especially when the infection model is used as an approach to study the yersinia-host interactions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Ds1 excision ; Maize Streak Virus ; Zea mays plants ; Agroinfection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A reverse genetic system for studying excision of the transposable elementDs1 in maize plants has been established previously. In this system, theDs1 element, as part of the genome of maize streak virus (MSV), is introduced into maize plants via agroinfection. In the presence of theAc element, excision ofDs1 from the MSV genome results in the appearance of viral symptoms on the maize plants. Here, we used this system to study DNA sequences requiredin cis for excision ofDs1. TheDs1 element contains theAc transposase binding motif AAACGG in only one of its subterminal regions (defined here as the 5′ subterminal region). We showed that mutation of these motifs abolished completely the excision capacity ofDs1. This is the first direct demonstration that the transposase binding motifs are essential for excision. Mutagenesis with oligonucleotide insertions in the other (3′) subterminal region resulted in elements with either a reduced or an increased excision efficiency, indicating that this subterminal region also has an important function.
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