Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Summary A simple model, based on the use of transformations of second-order tensors, is presented in this paper to predict the failure mode of wood members stressed in various degrees of parallel-and perpendicular-to-grain tension and parallel-to-grain shear. This type of loading is indicative of structural wood members with cross grain or grain deviations in the vicinity of knots subjected to bending or tension. The model is based on the assumptions that failure is dictated by the presence of any of the aforementioned stresses that exceed the clear wood strength in that mode and that failure does not result from stress interactions. The magnitudes of the applied stresses are normalized relative to the wood strength in that mode. The ratio of applied stress to material strength that is greatest at any particular angle of load to grain is presumed to be the failure mode at that angle. To verify model predictions, optical and microscopic analyses of surfaces of failed specimens loaded in uniaxial tension at angles between 0° and 90° to grain were compared to previously obtained, or otherwise known, surfaces of specimens tested in tension and shear. Specimens tested at various angles to grain demonstrated failed surfaces very much like those associated with specimens loaded in the modes predicted by the model.
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