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  • 2015-2019  (131)
  • 1995-1999  (49)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new approach is presented which allows the in vivo visualization of individual chromosome territories in the nuclei of living human cells. The fluorescent thymidine analog Cy3-AP3-dUTP was microinjected into the nuclei of cultured human cells, such as human diploid fibroblasts, HeLa cells and neuroblastoma cells. The fluorescent analog was incorporated during S-phase into the replicating genomic DNA. Labelled cells were further cultivated for several cell cycles in normal medium. This well-known scheme yielded sister chromatid labelling. Random segregation of labelled and unlabelled chromatids into daughter nuclei resulted in nuclei exhibiting individual in vivo detectable chromatid territories. The territories were composed of subcompartments with diameters ranging between approximately 400 and 800 nm which we refer to as subchromosomal foci. Time-resolved in vivo studies demonstrated changes of positioning and shape of territories and subchromosomal foci. The hypothesis that subchromosomal foci persist as functionally distinct entities was supported by double labelling of chromatin with CldU and IdU, respectively, at early and late S-phase and subsequent cultivation of corresponding cells for 5–10 cell cycles before fixation and immunocytochemical detection. This scheme yielded segregated chromatid territories with distinctly separated subchromosomal foci composed of either early- or late-replicating chromatin. The size range of subchromosomal foci was similar after shorter (2 h) and longer (16 h) labelling periods and was observed in nuclei of both living and fixed cells, suggesting their structural identity. A possible functional relevance of chromosome territory compartmentalization into subchromosomal foci is discussed in the context of present models of interphase chromosome and nuclear architecture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-5225
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Summary A simple model, based on the use of transformations of second-order tensors, is presented in this paper to predict the failure mode of wood members stressed in various degrees of parallel-and perpendicular-to-grain tension and parallel-to-grain shear. This type of loading is indicative of structural wood members with cross grain or grain deviations in the vicinity of knots subjected to bending or tension. The model is based on the assumptions that failure is dictated by the presence of any of the aforementioned stresses that exceed the clear wood strength in that mode and that failure does not result from stress interactions. The magnitudes of the applied stresses are normalized relative to the wood strength in that mode. The ratio of applied stress to material strength that is greatest at any particular angle of load to grain is presumed to be the failure mode at that angle. To verify model predictions, optical and microscopic analyses of surfaces of failed specimens loaded in uniaxial tension at angles between 0° and 90° to grain were compared to previously obtained, or otherwise known, surfaces of specimens tested in tension and shear. Specimens tested at various angles to grain demonstrated failed surfaces very much like those associated with specimens loaded in the modes predicted by the model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1090-6487
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Slight changes with temperature in the director orientation at the surface of a perfect planar cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layer, which are precursors of a jump in the pitch of the cholesteric helix, are observed by measuring the temperature dependence of the optical transmission spectra of the layer. The observed changes in the director orientation are described in the framework of the continuum theory of CLCs, supplemented with allowance for the surface anchoring forces. In particular, the angle of deviation of the director at the surface from the alignment direction at the exact temperature of the jump in pitch is expressed in terms of the anchoring potential. The relation obtained is use to find the anchoring potential in the samples.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1090-6509
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Hysteresis of the temperature of jumps in the cholesteric pitch in planar layers of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) has been observed in the temperature dependence of the optical transmission spectra measured in a 4.8 ¼m thick specimen of a 60% chiral racemic mixture of CE6. The temperature difference for the pitch jumps during heating and cooling was equal to about 0.1°C near 40.3°C. No difference in the temperature of the pitch jumps during heating and cooling was observed for an 18 µm thick specimen. A theoretical description of this hysteresis is presented on the basis of a continuum theory of elasticity of CLCs that also takes account of the surface anchoring of the CLC. Different possible mechanisms leading to a change in the director configuration in the layer during a pitch jump and their correspondence to the jump mechanism and hysteresis which occur in the experimental specimens are discussed.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    The @TQM magazine 10 (1998), S. 458-463 
    ISSN: 0954-478X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Regarding preventive quality management, Germany was lagging behind for many years. Managers relied on the famous mark "Made in Germany" for too long. They did not realize that international competition had tightened. However, times have changed. Starting with the boom in ISO certifications, Germany is getting back on track again. Today, total quality management and business excellence concepts are gaining ground. Positive trends regarding both applications for Germany's Ludwig-Erhard-Preis and the use of self-assessment show that the quality movement has got a new impetus.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 381 (1996), S. 566-566 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - Graham Martin's report1 of the recent symposium on avian systematics (Avian Taxonomy from Linnaeus to DNA\ London, 23 March 1996) covered several important aspects of the debate over two different species concepts - the biological and phylogenetic - and how use of the latter might increase ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 8
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 9
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    ISSN: 1359-8538
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Self-assessment based on TQM criteria frameworks has become a widespread management tool. Apart from the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in the USA, the European Model for Business Excellence has become the most important framework of this kind for Europe. This article first reflects on how self-assessment basically fits into a total quality management context. It will be shown, that an integration with corporate planning is inevitable to guarantee the success of self-assessment in the long run. Most emphasis is placed on different approaches to self-assessment in a combination of case study evidence and literature review. The approaches include the assessment model of the European Foundation for Quality Management, a workshop approach, a pro forma approach and the so-called peer involvement approach to self-assessment. The presentation of these approaches is enhanced by the personal experiences of the authors from some 40 self-assessments they have coached.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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