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  • 1
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Yanbian area is located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) of China and is characterized by widespread Phanerozoic granitic intrusions. It was previously thought that the Yanbian granitoids were mainly emplaced in the Early Paleozoic (so-called ‘Caledonian’ granitoids), extending east–west along the northern margin of the North China craton. However, few of them have been precisely dated; therefore, five typical ‘Caledonian’ granitic intrusions (the Huangniling, Dakai, Mengshan, Gaoling and Bailiping batholiths) were selected for U–Pb zircon isotopic study. New-age data show that emplacement of these granitoids extended from the Late Paleozoic to Late Mesozoic (285–116 Ma). This indicates that no ‘Caledonian’ granitic belt exists along the northern margin of the North China craton. The granitoids can be subdivided into four episodes based on our new data: Early Permian (285 ± 9 Ma), Early Triassic (249–245 Ma), Jurassic (192–168 Ma) and Cretaceous (119–116 Ma). The 285 ± 9 Ma tonalite was most likely related to subduction of the Paleo-Asian Oceanic Plate beneath the North China craton, followed by Triassic (249–245 Ma) syn-collisional monzogranites, representing the collision of the CAOB orogenic collage with the North China craton and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Jurassic granitoids resulted from subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate and subsequent collision of the Jiamusi–Khanka Massif with the existing continent, assembled in the Triassic. The Early Cretaceous granitoids formed in an extensional setting along the eastern Asian continental margin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 51 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Wide-angle multicomponent ocean-bottom cable (OBC) data should further enhance sub-basalt imaging by using both compressional and converted shear wavefields. The first step in analysing multicomponent OBC data is to decompose the recorded wavefields into pure P- and pure S-wavefields, and extract the upgoing P- and S-waves. This paper presents a new scheme to separate P- and S-wavefields from wide-angle multicomponent OBC data in the τ–p domain. By considering plane-wave components with a known horizontal slowness, the P- and S-wavefields are separated into the directions of observed P- and S-wave oscillations using the horizontal and vertical components of the data. The upgoing P- and S-waves are then extracted from the separated P- and S-wavefields. The parameters used in the separation are the seismic wave velocities and the density at the receiver location, which can be estimated from the first reflection phase observed on the horizontal and vertical components. Numerical tests on synthetic data for a plane-layered model show good performance and demonstrate the accuracy of the scheme. Separation of wavefields from a basalt model is performed using synthetic wide-angle multicomponent OBC data. The results show that both near-offset and wide-angle reflections and conversions from within and below basalt layers are enhanced and clearly identified on the separated wavefields.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2004
    Keywords: CC 1/1 ; Coordinating Committee ; Himalayas
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1745-4581
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A membrane separator/bioreactor system was developed for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The system consisted of a membrane separator/bioreactor (0.45 μm of the pore size) to separate the-complexes of E. coli O157:H7 and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies from the sample and to produce p-nitrophenol through the enzymatic reaction (p-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysis), and an optical detector for measuring the p-nitrophenol absorbance at 400 nm. The membrane material and the flow rate of the substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis had great effects on the absorbance of p-nitrophenol. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic reaction were determined as 1.0 M Tris buffer, pH 8.0, and 0.1 M MgCl2 for this system. The detection range was 104± 107 CFU/mL with a relative standard deviation of 4.3 ± 14.2%, and whole procedure could be completed in 50 min without any enrichment and culture. Other bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes had no significant interference with the detection of E. coli O157:H7.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1745-4581
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A bienzyme (tyrosinase and horseradish peroxidase) electrochemical biosensor was developed for detection of Salmonella typhimurium, and evaluated for application in a flow injection system coupled with immunomagnetic separation for food samples. Parameters for immunomagnetic separation, enzymatic reaction, flow injection and electrochemical detection were determined using pure culture samples. The selectivity was tested in the presence of Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and E. coli 0157:H7. The results showed a linear relationship for logarithmic values between peak current ratio and the cell number of S. typhimurium in the range of 103 105 cfu/mL, with R2= 0.99. The detection limit of this method was 1.09 × 103 cfu/mL for S. typhimurium and the detection time was 2.5 h. Samples of chicken carcass wash water and ground beef were used to evaluate the biosensor. The results demonstrated that this biosensor has a potential for rapid detection of different pathogens in various food samples.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1745-4581
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A DNA binding fluorescence method based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was evaluated for rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry products. Wash water samples of chicken carcasses and ground turkey were inoculated with S. Typhimurium to obtain final concentrations of 10° - 105 CFU/mL. One mL of each sample was used to get the DNA template and 5 μL of the sample template was added into 25 μL of SYBR Green PCR Master Mix and two specific Salmonella ompC gene primers. The negative control was the same except 5 μL of each wash solution was added instead of 5 μL sample template. The reaction was carried out in a thermocycler. Finally, the fluorescence signal of each PCR product was measured using a fluorometer. The PCR products were also confirmed by ethidium bromide agarose gel, and the DNA concentrations of the PCR products were measured by a filter fluorescence photometer. The results showed that when bacterial cells increased from 0 to 2 CFU/mL, the fluorescence signal increased significantly. The PCR-based fluorescence method could detect the target bacteria in minutes after PCR amplification compared to hours by gel electrophoresis and also could be done at an earlier time during PCR amplification. The detection limit of this method for S. Typhimurium in the poultry samples was 2 CFU/mL without any enrichment.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1745-4581
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A chemiluminescence biosensor, using a fiber-optic-linked photometer and a data acquisition unit connected to a PC, was developed in conjunction with immunomagnetic separation for rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium. Magnetic microbeads coated with Anti-Salmonella antibodies and anti-Salmonella antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were added to artificially-inoculated samples, and the immuno-reaction was completed in 60 min resulting in a sandwich complex. A magnetic field was applied to collect magnetic beads and the addition of luminol to HRP-conjugated antibodies resulted in a chemiluminescence reaction. The signal was collected through a fiber optic light guide, measured with a photometer, and recorded in the data acquisition unit. The minimum detection limit of the chemiluminescence biosensor for S. Typhimurium was 1.97 × 103 CFU/mL and the range of the detectable signal was from 8.6 to 350 mV for cell numbers from 1.97 × 103 to 1.97 × 106 CFU/mL. Signal values for 106 CFU/mL of S. Typhimurium were at least 97 and 394% higher than the corresponding values for S. enteritidis and four times the signal values for others including S. montevideo, S. california, S. heidlberg, and S. seftenberg, respectively. The biosensor response showed a significant difference (P 〈 0.05) between 103 CFU/mL S. Typhimurium and 106 CFU/mL of commonly-occurring bacteria in foods including Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157, and generic Escherichia coli. A regression equation, V = 0.0262 N 5.7713, with R2= 0.9713 was obtained for the calibration curve over the detection range for S. Typhimurium. The whole procedure could be completed within 90 min.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1745-4581
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a Listeria enrichment broth (LEB) was automatically monitored by electrochemical cyclic voltammetric scan using a gold working electrode. Changes in cyclic voltammograms were observed during growth of L. monocytogenes in LEB. The reduction peak at −0.4 V (vs Ag/AgCl) corresponding to the reduction of oxygen dissolved in LEB on cyclic voltammograms was decreasing with proliferation of L. monocytogenes, and disappeared eventually. A pair of reversible redox peaks appeared during growth of L. monocytogenes in LEB. These cyclic voltammetric characteristics can be used to detect L. monocytogenes in various samples. Threshold values (detection time) obtained from the oxygen consumption curves were inversely related to the concentrations of L. monocytogenes in the broth. A calibration curve was obtained by plotting initial cell concentrations (CFU/mL) determined by conventional plate counting, as a function of the detection time. A linear response was found on the calibration curve for L. monocytogenes between 1 ∼ 9 times 100 and 1 ∼ 9 times 105 cells/mL. The detection time was approximately 17 and 6 h for 1 ∼ 9 times 100 and 1 ∼ 9 × 105 cells/mL of viable L. monocytogenes in the broth, respectively. The method was evaluated in detection of L. monocytogenes in milk samples.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We describe a laser heated diamond anvil cell system at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS sector at the Advanced Photon Source. The system can be used for in situ x-ray measurements at simultaneously ultrahigh pressures (to 〉150 GPa) and ultrahigh temperatures (to 〉4000 K). Design goals of the laser heating system include generation of a large heating volume compared to the x-ray beam size, minimization of the sample temperature gradients both radially and axially in the diamond anvil cell, and maximization of heating stability. The system is based on double-sided laser heating technique and consists of two Nd:YLF lasers with one operating in TEM00 mode and the other in TEM01* mode, optics to heat the sample from both sides, and two spectroradiometric systems for temperature measurements on both sides. When combined with an x-ray microbeam (3–10 μm) technique, a temperature variation of less than 50 K can be achieved within an x-ray sampled region for longer than 10 min. The system has been used to obtain in situ structural data and high temperature equations of state on metals, oxides, and silicates to 3500 K and 160 GPa. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 114 (2001), S. 3809-3816 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The behavior of tethered polymers on gel/gel adhesion is studied with the single-chain mean-field (SCMF) theory. It is shown that the gel surface structure, the gel/gel adhesion strength, the equilibrium gel/gel distance, and the detailed interface structures can be tailored by specifically designed tethered layers on gel surfaces. The SCMF theory allows to study the effect of various variables of tethered layers, such as the surface coverage, the attraction between polymers and gels, and the composition of block copolymers. These theoretical results provide guidelines for experimental designs of novel gel materials with tethered layers. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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