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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: vitamins; activated sludge; industrial wastewater; porous pots; Amtox™
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The process performance and metabolic rates of samples of activated sludge dosed with vitamin supplements have been compared. After initial screening, four vitamins and two metals as single supplements and in pairs, were dosed continuously into the mixed liquor of an activated sludge simulation. Toxicity, oxygen demand removal, respiration rates and suspended solids were measured to monitor the effect on process efficiency. It was confirmed experimentally that an industrial wastewater stream did not contain a sufficient supply of micronutrients for efficient biological treatment. This was concluded from the observation that control sludge batches (receiving no supplements) averaged chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 58%. Dosing micronutrients into the mixed liquor produced removal efficiencies of up to 69%. Some of the supplements increased the respiration rate of the sludge while some decreased it, indicating a range of stimulatory and inhibitory effects. Complex interactions between micronutrients that were dosed simultaneously were evident. Several positive effects led to the conclusion that micronutrients have the potential to optimise process performance of activated sludge plants treating industrial wastewater. The addition of phosphorus/niacin and molybdenum/lactoflavin removed wastewater components that were toxic to nitrifiers as indicated through toxicity testing, thus protecting downstream nitrification/denitrification treatment processes. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology (2000) 24, 267–274.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Virtual biopsies ; Barrett's oesophagus ; Bio-electrical impedance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It has previously been shown that it is possible to differentiate between squamous and columnar epithelia in rat and resected human tissues using an impedance probe to makein vitro measurements. This probe can be passed down an endoscope allowing measurements to be made in patients. However, the probe emerges parallel to the oesophageal wall, with little room to manoeuvre. The conditions of control required to give reliable readings have been investigated. The importance of pressure applied and the angle of approach to the oesophagus was assessed. Pressures in the range 26.6 Pa to 46.3 kPa and angles in the range 15–90 degrees were considered. Inin vitro studies it was observed that it was possible to obtain consistent readings with pressures greater than 2.9 kPa and with angles greater than 15 degrees between the probe and the oesophagus. These conditions can be achievedin vivo, and readings obtained from twelve patients are shown (45 readings on normal squamous, 34 on Barrett's oesophagus and 22 on stomach). At low frequencies (9.6–153.2 kHz), a Mann-Whitney test shows a significant difference (p〈0.001) when comparing the means from squamous and columnar, and also when readings from Barrett's and normal gastric epithelia are compared (p〈0.001).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: An organism diversity index for use with mixed liquor or wastewater samples was developed to assess the species richness and diversity of activated sludge. The index was used in several studies and was found to be fast and simple to perform using basic laboratory equipment. Two bench-scale and two pilot-scale studies found that the resulting ‘organism diversity index’value was a good indicator of process performance and was not influenced by the total concentration of the mixed-liquor suspended solids but by their nature alone. The technique rapidly yielded pertinent information about the health of the sludge and could be used instead of genetic investigations to obtain population information quickly enough for wastewater-treatment plant process control.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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