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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the in vitro germination and viability of conidia of the apple brown rot fungus (Monilinia fructigena), and on colonization and sporulation on detached fruits by M. fructigena. Conidia only germinated under near-saturation humidity (≥ 97% RH) and the rate of germination initially increased with temperature to a maximum at ≈ 23–25°C and then decreased. Conidia germinated rapidly – more than 70% of viable conidia had germinated within 2 h at 20 and 25°C. The rate of colonization on detached fruits increased log-linearly with increasing temperature. Sporulation on detached fruits was not observed at 5 or 25°C; sporulation appeared to be unaffected by either temperature (10–20°C) or RH (45–98%) once infection was established. Detached conidia remained viable for a long period of time, up to 20 days, the longest assessment time in this study, depending on storage temperature (10 or 20°C) and RH (45 or 85%). Temperature appeared to be more important than RH in affecting conidial viability. Low temperature and high RH resulted in reduced loss of conidial viability. Storage at 10°C and 85% RH for up to 20 days appeared not to affect conidial viability. These results indicate that environmental conditions during the main UK growing seasons are unlikely to be limiting factors for the development of brown rot on apple.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 119 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Five Nordic spring barley lines (‘Rolfi’, ‘Arve’, ‘Botnia’, ‘Pohto’ and WW7977) and doubled haploid (DH) populations from a half diallel of crosses between them, were sown in the field in Finland over 2 years and were artificially infected with Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of net blotch. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent of yield loss under net blotch infection in a range of parent barleys and DH populations differing in symptom expression. Analysis of foliar damage symptoms, yield and aerial biomass data indicated that, in both years, there were statistically significant differences among parents and crosses, but the relationships between symptom expression and yield maintenance and between symptom expression and aerial biomass maintenance were stronger in 1997, when yields were higher and net blotch was less severe.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effects of temperature on the length of the incubation and latent periods of hawthorn powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera clandestina, were studied. At constant temperatures over the range 10–28°C, the incubation period ranged from 5 to 14 days and the latent period from 5 to 16 days; no visible colonies had developed at 30°C after 15 days. The relationships between temperature and the rates of fungus development within the incubation and latent periods were well described by a nonlinear model. The resulting curves were asymmetrically bell-shaped with an optimum temperature of approximately 23°C. The lengths of the incubation and latent periods under fluctuating temperatures were also determined, and were used to evaluate the models developed from constant temperature experiments for their accuracy of prediction. The incubation and latent periods under fluctuating temperature regimes were predicted using a rate-summation scheme with a time step of 24 min, by integrating the respective incubation and latent rate functions obtained under constant temperatures. The predicted incubation or latent periods agreed well with the observed values. Under constant temperature the interval between the times when symptoms and sporulation on the same leaflet were first observed was very short, on average 〈1 day, and was not significantly correlated with temperature. However, this interval was negatively correlated with mean temperature under fluctuating regimes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Spatio-temporal development of brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) on apple and pear was monitored in an apple (cv. Cox) orchard and a pear orchard of several cultivars over several years. Disease on individual trees was recorded weekly from July to harvest, individual fruits with brown rot were tagged but not removed and rot-origin identified. On apple cv. Cox and pear (cvs Conference and Comice), all primary rot arose from infection via wounds caused by insects, birds and growth cracks. Birds were the most important wounding agents on pear in the field. Secondary (fruit-to-fruit contact) rot was considerably less than primary rot, especially for pear. Incidence of disease (percentage of fruits with brown rot) increased gradually from late July up to harvest; the final disease incidence varied with seasons and cultivars, ranging from 1 to 11%. For pear, Comice had greater incidence than Conference. Significant aggregation of diseased fruits among trees was detected for assessment dates when the overall incidence of disease was greater than 0·5%. On Cox and Conference, significant correlation of disease incidence between adjacent trees or trees separated by one or more trees (i.e. spatial lag measured as units of distance between adjacent trees) was detected, but there was no clear relationship between the correlation, the distance or time. For Comice, there was consistent and significant positive correlation of brown rot incidence over 3 years. It is speculated that behavioural characteristics of wounding agents may have played an important role in influencing the spatio-temporal dynamics of brown rot on apple and pear.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 425 (2003), S. 65-69 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Late Devonian genus Ichthyostega was for many decades the earliest known tetrapod, and the sole representative of a transitional form between a fish and a land vertebrate. However, despite being known since 1932 (ref. 1) from a large collection of specimens, its morphology ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: BARE-1 retrotransposon Barley Net blotch resistance Linkage mapping Quantitative trait locus (QTL)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Net blotch, which is caused by the fungus Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg., presents a serious problem for barley production worldwide, and the identification and deployment of sources of resistance to it are key objectives for many breeders. Here, we report the identification of a major resistance gene, accounting for 65% of the response variation, in a cross between the resistant line CI9819 and the susceptible cv. Rolfi. The resistance gene was mapped to chromosome 6H with the aid of two recently developed systems of retrotransposon-based molecular markers, REMAP and IRAP. A total of 239 BARE-1 and Sukkula retrotransposon markers were mapped in the cross, and the 30-cM segment containing the locus with significant resistance effect contained 26 of the markers. The type and local density of the markers should facilitate future map-based cloning of the resistance gene as well as manipulation of the resistance through backcross breeding.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The specific size and structure of the edge current profile has important effects on the magnetohydrodynamic stability and ultimate performance of many advanced tokamak (AT) operating modes. This is true for both bootstrap and externally driven currents that may be used to tailor the edge shear. Absent a direct local measurement of j(r), the best alternative is a determination of the poloidal field. Measurements of the precision (0.1°–0.01° in magnetic pitch angle and 1–10 ms) necessary to address issues of stability and control and provide constraints for EFIT are difficult to do in the region of interest (ρ=0.9–1.1). Using Zeeman polarization spectroscopy of the 2S–2P lithium resonance line emission from the DIII-D LIBEAM [D. M. Thomas, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 806 (1995); D. M. Thomas, A. W. Hyatt, and M. P. Thomas, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 340 (1990)] measurements of the various field components may be made to the necessary precision in exactly the region of interest to these studies. Because of the negligible Stark mixing of the relevant atomic levels, this method of determining j(r) is insensitive to the large local electric fields typically found in enhanced confinement (H mode) edges, and thus avoids an ambiguity common to motional Stark effect measurements of B. Key issues for utilizing this technique include good beam quality, an optimum viewing geometry, and a suitable optical prefilter to isolate the polarized emission line. A prospective diagnostic system for the DIII-D AT program will be described. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A room temperature free shear strain of 5.7% is reported in a single crystal of Ni–Mn–Ga having a composition close to the Heusler alloy Ni2MnGa. A twin boundary was created in a 2 mm×2 mm×25 mm single crystal using a permanent magnet with surface field strength of about 320 000 A/m. A sharp 6.5° bend occurs in the sample at the twin boundary. The surface magnetization changes abruptly across this boundary. By moving the sample relative to the edge of the magnet, we were able to sweep the boundary back and forth along the crystal length. Surface magnetization was measured using a Hall probe and the results confirm that the easy axis is the tetragonal c axis. Powder x-ray diffraction shows that the fcc to body-centered-tetragonal bct martensitic transition of this material involved a 6% reduction of the bct cell c/a ratio, from (square root of 2) to about 1.33. The maximum achievable strain is thus estimated to be 6.2%. The twin planes in the system are the {112}bct and were observed to lie almost normal to the long axis of the sample tested. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Keywords: residual stress ; aluminum alloy ; forging ; solution heat treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys gain their high strength through heat treatment involving a severe quenching operation, which can have the adverse effect of introducing residual stresses. The finite element code ABAQUS is used to simulate the quenching of aluminum alloy 7010 in an attempt to predict the residual stress distribution that develops in simple shapes. The rate of heat transfer from the material is determined using the finite element method to predict the heat transfer coefficient from surface cooling curves achieved experimentally. The flow stress of the material is assumed to be strain rate dependent and to behave in a perfectly plastic manner. The predicted residual stress magnitudes and directions are compared to values determined using the holedrilling strain gage method and the X-ray diffraction technique.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Hordeum vulgare ; net blotch ; resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Results from tests of a mixture of Finnish net blotch, Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg., isolates on a differential series of barley seedlings, comprising 17genotypes, indicated that patterns of infection response (IR)and percentage leaf area damaged (PLAD) were unaffected by differences in seedling size. Variation of the concentration of inoculum between 1,250 conidia ml-1 and 20,000 conidia ml-1 produced similar patterns of IR and PLAD on the differential series. IR and PLAD scored on the second seedling leaf differentiated resistance to P. teres f. teresamong the genotypes better than on the first seedling leaf. Ina second experiment, 120 single-spore P. teres f. teres isolates from Finland, Sweden, Norway, Latvia, Estonia and Ireland were used in tests conducted in the greenhouse to differentiate them in terms of virulence reaction on seedlings of six differential barley genotypes. Each isolate was tested directly following isolation from the leaf material and after having passaged each through barley cvs. Arve or Pohto, to produce 360 isolates in total. Virulence of the isolates differed significantly on the members of the differential series, but differences associated with country of origin and passaging, and interactions, were small. It is concluded that little variation between virulence of P. teres f. teres isolates is evident over a large geographic area, incorporating Nordic and Baltic countries, and Ireland. Barley genotype response to P. teres f. teres appeared to be of more significance than relative virulence of the pathogen isolates. This could simplify breeding barley for improved resistance to this phytopathogen.
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