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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 213 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The detection of ancient microbial DNA offers a new approach for the study of infectious diseases, their occurrence, frequency and host–pathogen interaction in historic times and populations. Moreover, data obtained from skeletal and mummified tissue may represent an important completion of contemporary phylogenetic analyses of pathogens. In the last few years, a variety of bacterial, protozoal and viral infections have been detected in ancient tissue samples by amplification and characterization of specific DNA fragments. This holds particularly true for the identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which seems to be more robust than other microbes due to its waxy, hydrophobic and lipid-rich cell wall. These observations provided useful information about the occurrence, but also the frequency of tuberculosis in former populations. Moreover, these studies suggest new evolutionary models and indicate the route of transmission between human and animals. Until now, other pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, Yersinia pestis, Plasmodium falciparum and others, have occasionally been identified – mostly in single case studies or small sample sizes – as well, although much less information is available on these pathogens in ancient settings. The main reason therefore seems to be the degradation and modification of ancient DNA by progressive oxidative damage. Furthermore, the constant risk of contamination by recent DNA forces to take time and cost effective measures and renders the analysis of ancient microbes difficult. Nevertheless, the study of microbial ancient DNA significantly contributes to the understanding of transmission and spread of infectious diseases, and potentially to the evolution and phylogenetic pathways of pathogens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0143-991X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The application of robotics in manufacturing industry is increasingly spreading to other fields such as service, security and medical, and more recently into orthopedic surgery. Most research projects to date have concentrated on the lighter side of non-invasive surgery, camera, laser guidance, light cutting and milling through bone. Just as in industrial production and processing applications, the choice of robot and its accompanying control and programming system is absolutely paramount. This simple fact has been justified in recent research dealing with the heavier forms of fracture repositioning robotics in accident surgery. This paper discusses the development of the complete system including robot, end-effector and sensors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-03-31
    Description: Official and unilateral dollarisation/euroisation has become a common policy advice for emerging market economies. Against this background, the paper provides a comprehensive review of all the main cases of dollarisation/euroisation, analysing motives, features and policy implications of this exchange rate regime. The main results are that policies fostering integration with the anchor country, in particular fiscal transfers, tourism and offshore finance, have been crucial in supporting the exchange rate regime. To this end, most dollarised/euroised countries have exploited advantages that are largely prior to the choice of exchange rate regime, namely their small size, geographic proximity to the anchor country, and politically dependent status. Thus, recommending dollarisation/euroisation irrespective of countries’ ex ante degree of integration with the potential anchor country seems to bear considerable risks, as dollarisation/euroisation does not seem to be a straightforward substitute for integration.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Währungssubstitution ; Euro ; US-Dollar ; Optimaler Währungsraum ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-03-31
    Description: This paper reviews the strategies announced by the ten countries joining the European Union in May 2004 with regard to their intentions for participation in ERM II and the adoption of the euro. The paper examines the economic rationale of the monetary integration strategies declared by most acceding countries with a view to identifying also their potential risks. It does so by making use of several different approaches, including a short review of nominal convergence and a more extensive discussion from an optimum currency area perspective. An important part of the analysis is devoted to the implications of real convergence – i.e. catching-up growth in income and adjustment of the real economic structures towards those prevailing in the euro area – on the patterns of economic dynamics in acceding countries. Other aspects covered are the risks for external competitiveness in the convergence process and the appropriate pace of fiscal consolidation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Europäisches Währungssystem ; Euro ; EU-Mitgliedschaft ; Osteuropa ; Malta ; Zypern
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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