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  • 2000-2004  (7)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The principle source of pickup ions at Titan is its neutral exosphere, extending well above the ionopause into the magnetosphere of Saturn or the solar wind, depending on the moon's orbital position. Thermal and nonthermal processes in the thermosphere generate the distribution of neutral atoms and molecules in the exosphere. The combination of these processes and the range of mass numbers, 1 to over 28, contribute to an exospheric source structure that produces pickup ions with gyroradii that are much larger or smaller than the corresponding scale heights of their neutral sources. The resulting phase space distributions are dependent on the spatial structure of the exosphere as well as that of the magnetic field and background plasma. When the pickup ion gyroradius is less than the source gas scale height, the pickup ion velocity distribution is characterized by a sharp cutoff near the maximum speed, which is twice that of the ambient plasma times the sine of the angle between the magnetic field and the flow velocity. This was the case for pickup H(sup +) ions identified during the Voyager 1 flyby. In contrast, as the gyroradius becomes much larger than the scale height, the peak of the velocity distribution in the source region recedes from the maximum speed. Iri addition, the amplitude of the distribution near the maximum speed decreases. These more beam like distributions of heavy ions were not observed from Voyager 1 , but should be observable by more sensitive instruments on future spacecraft, including Cassini. The finite gyroradius effects in the pickup ion velocity distributions are studied by including in the analysis the possible range of spatial structures in the neutral exosphere and background plasma.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: 2004 Spring AGU Meeting; May 17, 2004 - May 19, 2004; Montreal; Canada
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument is scheduled to observe the plasma environment at Titan October 26,2004 from the Cassini Orbiter. Preliminary CAPS ion measurements from this encounter will be compared with measurements made by the Voyager I Plasma Science Instrument (PSI). The comparison will be used to evaluate previous interpretations and predictions of the Titan plasma environment that have been made using PSI measurements. The comparisons will focus on the composition and nature of the ambient plasma and pickup ions. Using the CAPS ion measurements, some of the questions to be addressed, as stimulated by the previous interpretations and predictions made evaluating PSI data, are the following: A) Are H+ and N+ the major ion components of Saturn's rotating magnetosphere in the vicinity of Titan? B) Are other ambient ions present? C) Are finite gyroradius effects apparent in ambient N+ as the result of its interaction with Titans atmosphere? D) Are the principal pickup ions composed of H+, H2+, N+, N2+ and CH4+? E) Is the dominant pickup ion closest to Titan's ionopause N2+? F) Is there evidence of slowing down of the ambient plasma due to pickup ion mass loading? F) If so, does the ambient plasma slow down rapidly, as the ionopause is approached and heavier pickup ions like N2+ are added? During the Voyager I flyby, Titan was in Saturn's magnetosphere. If Titan is in Saturn's magnetosheath or the solar wind at the encounter, questions similar to the above will be addressed as appropriate.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: AGU Fall Session; Dec 13, 2004 - Dec 17, 2004; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Atmospheric gases escape from Venus as neutral and ionized atoms and molecules. Ion escape, considered here, occurs through ion pickup or collective plasma processes. The latter can arise from upward flow of nightside ionospheric plasma into the ionotail, day to night ionospheric flow into the ionotail, and scavenging of ionospheric plasma by ionosphere-magnetosheath instabilities at the ionopause. These plasma processes produce differing signatures in ion velocity and energy distributions and in ULF waves in the magnetic field. Using plasma ion spectra measured by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA) and magnetic field fluctuations observed by the PVO Orbiter Magnetometer (OMAG) along with the expected particle and field signatures, various ion escape processes occurring along Pioneer Venus orbits are identified. In particular, OPA ion energy distributions are used in parallel with magnetic field power spectra and wave phase angles derived from OMAG measurements to study the characteristics of escaping ions. The principle ions observed escaping the influence of Venus are H+, He+ and 0'. In the ion energy distributions of the OPA, pickup ions appear hot relative to the much cooler ions flowing away from Venus in the ionotail and in the plasma clouds detached from the ionopause. This energy contrast is particularly evident downstream when PVO crosses the ionotail boundary from the hot solar wind plasma to the much cooler plasma within the tail. Magnetic field signatures accompanying the escaping ions appear as peaks in the power spectra at the corresponding ion cyclotron frequencies. Also, coherent wave trains at the same frequencies are observed in the phase angle plots of magnetic field fluctuations about the mean field.
    Keywords: Plasma Physics
    Type: IUGG 2003; Jun 30, 2003 - Jul 11, 2003; Sapporo; Japan
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: We propose that waves generate an oscillation in the Sun to account for the 22-year magnetic cycle. The mechanism we envision is analogous to that driving the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) observed in the terrestrial atmosphere, which is well understood in principal. Planetary waves and gravity waves deposit momentum in the background atmosphere and accelerate the flow under viscous dissipation. Analysis shows that such a momentum source represents a non-linearity of third or generally odd order, which generates also the fundamental frequency/period so that an oscillation is maintained without external time dependent forcing. For the Sun, we propose that the wave driven oscillation would occur just below the convection region, where the buoyancy frequency or convective stability becomes small to favor wave breaking and wave mean flow interaction. Using scale analysis to extrapolate from terrestrial to solar conditions, we present results from a simplified analytical model, applied to the equator, that incorporates Hines'Doppler Spread Parameterization for gravity waves (GW). Based on a parametric study, we conclude: (1) Depending on the adopted horizontal wavelengths of GW's, wave amplitudes 〈 10 m/s can be made to produce oscillating zonal winds of about 25 m/s that should be large enough to generate a corresponding oscillation in the main poloidal magnetic field; (2) The oscillation period can be made to be 22 years provided the buoyancy frequency (stability) is sufficiently small, which would place the oscillating wind field near the base of the convection region; (3) In this region, the turbulence associated with wave processes would be enhanced by low stability, and this also helps to produce the desired oscillation period and generate the dynamo currents that would produce the reversing magnetic field. We suggest that the above mechanism may also drive other long-period metronomes in planetary and stellar interiors.
    Keywords: Solar Physics
    Type: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting; Dec 15, 2000 - Dec 19, 2000; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Knowledge gained from measurements and models is used to study the high-speed plasmas interacting with the atmospheres and ionospheres of Titan and Venus. Considering the similarities of the interactions, comparative analysis is used to support the interpretations of observations made at each body. Ionospheric flow inferred to exist by analysis of measurements made from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter supports the interpretation of similar flow in the ionosphere of Titan. The concept that cold ions escape from the ionosphere of Venus is supported by the Voyager I observation that cold ions escape down the magnetic tail of Titan. Pickup O+ ion energy distributions observed at their source in the ionosheath of Venus are shown to be influenced by finite gyroradius effects. The signatures of such effects are expected to be retained as the ions move into the wakes of Titan and Venus.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Forum on Innovative Approaches to Outer Planetary Exploration 2001-2020; 77; LPI-Contrib-1084
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Titan and Venus are unmagnetized bodies that interact directly with the high speed plasmas flowing around them. The similarities of these interactions are used to reinforce the interpretations of measurements made at each body from different measurement sites. In particular, observations of plasma properties at Titan and Venus from Voyager I and Pioneer Venus, respectively, when considered together, tend to reinforce the concept that ions of ionospheric origin escape down the ionotails of each body. The plasma measurements at Titan were made in its ionotail, well above its ionosphere. They revealed plasma flowing from Titan and escaping down its ionotail. On the other hand, the measurements at Venus were made in its ionosphere, where ionospheric ions were inferred to be flowing upward toward Venus' ionotail. When these processes are applied to Titan's ionosphere, upward flow toward the ionotail is found to be possible, consistent with the plasma observed escaping further down the ionotail. Applying similar reasoning to Venus, the upward ionospheric flow is expected to accelerate and escape down its ionotail. The latter result is reinforced by the recent detection, from SOHO, of cold ions in the distant wake (at 1 AU), which were interpreted to originate in the ionosphere of Venus.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Space Research; Jul 16, 2000 - Jul 24, 2000; Poland
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