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  • 2000-2004  (9)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-04-30
    Description: During the spring session of the ICES Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ACFM) the stocks of the Northern Pelagic and Blue Whiting, North Western, Baltic, Arctic and Deep Sea Working Groups have been analysed and assessed, as well as the Nephrops stocks. As in previous years ICES recommends a reduction in fishing mortality for a number of stocks. Moreover, ICES recommends for many stocks to establish recovery and management plans, to safeguard a continuous development of the stocks towards safe biological limits. Detailed recovery plans were proposed for cod and hake in the North Sea.
    Keywords: Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-05-02
    Description: During the autumn session of the ICES Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ACFM) 58 stocks assessed in six Working Groups have been analysed and reviewed, among these the demersal stocks in the North Sea and the Mackerel stock in the North East Atlantic. As in previous years, ICES recommends a reduction in fishing mortality for a number of stocks or even the establishment of recovery and management plans, to safeguard a continuous development of the stocks towards safe biological limits. ICES recommended the closure of the directed cod fishery and any fishery taking cod as by-catch in the North Sea, west of Scotland and in the Irish Sea. This will have a significant impact on the mixed round fish fisheries targeting haddock and whiting.
    Keywords: Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-04-27
    Description: The implementation of the precautionary approach in the mid-1990s required commercial fish stocks to be classified into different categories. These are based on the degree to which stocks have been exploited or are threatened by fishing activities. According to current ICES terminology, stocks are classified as being either “within” or “outside safe biological limits”, or as being “harvested outside safe biological limits”. Between 1996 and 2002, the relative share of stocks in these three categories remained relatively stable (at about 20 %, 30 % and 15 %, respectively). Over the same time span, the number of stocks were insufficient data is available to quantify and thus to appropriately classify the state of the spawning stock biomass (“status unknown”) has increased. Neglecting potential impacts of fishing pressure, the combined average proportion of all stocks with sufficiently high spawning stock biomass is at about one third, while only one fifth of the stocks assessed have been managed sustainably. For some important fish stocks in the ICES environment – specifically demersal ones –, science recently had to call for rebuilding plans or even a closure of the fishery to allow recovery, in spite of the management’s agreement to manage the resources according to the precautionary approach. This obvious difference between approach and implementation has a number of potential causes: erroneous or imprecise input data (landings, discard and sampling information), insufficient assessment models, problems in the understanding of the scientific advice, and implementation errors. The latter could be either a difference between advised and implemented total allowable catches (TACs), or an excess of legal TACs. During the fifteen years covered by this analysis (1987 to 2002), the average deviation between the implemented TACs for a specific stock and that recommended by ICES for the same stock was more than 30 %. The overall average deviation (summed over all stocks) for the entire period was 34 %, excluding, however, four extreme outliers in the data, representing cases in which scientific recommendations were exceeded by as much as 1000 to 2500 %. If these were included, the overall average would be as high as 45 %. The annual deviation has substantially increased in recent years (from roughly 20 % in earlier years of the surveyed period). This recently observed high deviation also matches ICES’s estimate that the fishing mortality in the ICES convention area in the 1990s was well above recommended sustainable levels in the pelagic and demersal fishery. A direct comparison of scientifically proposed and politically implemented TACs is problematic in many case
    Keywords: Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-04-30
    Description: During the autumn session of the ICES Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ACFM) 58 stocks assessed in 7 Working Groups have been analyzed and reviewed, among these the demersal stocks in the North Sea and the Mackerel stock. As in previous years, ICES recommends a reduction in fishing mortality for a number of stocks or even the establishment of recovery and management plans, to safeguard a continuous development of the stocks towards safe biological limits. ICES reiterated last year’s recommendation to close the directed cod fishery and any fishery taking cod as by-catch in the North Sea, west of Scotland and in the Irish Sea. This year, the stocks of plaice in the North Sea, southern hake and southern anglers are (among others) in a critical state and in urgent need of protecting or rebuilding measures. This will again have an enormous impact on almost all mixed fisheries in the European Union.
    Keywords: Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-05-02
    Description: During the autumn session of the ICES Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ACFM) the stock of the Northern and Southern Shelfs, North Sea and Skagerrak have been analysed and assessed, as well as the mackerel and horse mackerel, sardine, anchovy, Pandalus and Eel. As in previous years ICES recommends a reduction in fishing mortality for a number of stocks. Moreover, ICES recommends for many stocks to establish recovery and management plans, to safeguard a continuous development of the stocks towards safe biological limits.
    Keywords: Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: The North-European fish stocks are assessed annually by ICES working groups. The results are evaluated twice annually in two meetings of the Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ACFM) at ICES. Based on the working group assessments, ACFM formulates an advice for the fisheries management and suggests a total allowable catch (TAC) which is based strictly on biological grounds. The summaries of the state of some selected stocks which are given here, are derived from the ACFM advice, formulated during the most recent October 1999 meeting. For many of the fish stocks the precautionary approach has been implemented now, and for most of them the target reference points have been defined. As a result, most of the stocks are outside safe biological limits or are harvested in disaccordance with the precautionary approach. Only 10 stocks of those evaluated during this autumn meeting were found to be within safe biological limits.
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: To improve the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea, a number of regulations have recently been established by the International Baltic Sea Fisheries Commission (IBSFC) and the European Commission. According to these, fishermen are obliged to use nets with escape windows (BACOMA nets) with a mesh size of the escape window of 120 mm until end of September 2003. These nets however, retain only fish much larger than the legal minimum landing size would al-low. Due to the present stock structure only few of such large fish are however existent. As a consequence fishermen use a legal alternative net. This is a conventional trawl with a cod-end of 130 mm diamond-shaped meshes (IBSFC-rules of 1st April 2002), to be increased to 140 mm on 1st September 2003, according to the mentioned IBSFC-rule. Due legal alterations of the net by the fishermen (e.g. use of extra stiff net material) these nets have acquired extremely low selective properties, i. e. they catch very small fish and produce great amounts of discards. Due to the increase of the minimum landing size from 35 to 38 cm for cod in the Baltic, the amount of discards has even increased since the beginning of 2003. Experiments have now been carried out with the BACOMAnet on German and Swedish commercial and research vessels since arguments were brought forward that the BACOMA net was not yet sufficiently tested on commercial vessels. The results of all experiments conducted so far, are compiled and evaluated here. As a result of the Swedish, Danish and German initiative and research the European Commission reacted upon this in June 2003 and rejected the increase of the diamond-meshed non-BACOMA net from 130 mm to 140mm in September 2003. To protect the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea more effectively the use of traditional diamond meshed cod-ends with-out escape window are prohibited in community waters without derogation, becoming effective 1st of September 2003. To enable more effective and simplified control of the bottom trawl fishery in the Baltic Sea the principle of a ”One-Net-Rule“ is enforced. This is going to be the BACOMA net, with the meshes of the escape window being 110 mm for the time being. The description of the BACOMA net as given in the IBSFC-rules no.10 (revision of the 28th session, Berlin 2002) concentrates on the cod-end and the escape window but only to a less extent on the design and mesh-composition of the remaining parts of the net, such as belly and funnel and many details. Thus, the present description is not complete and leaves, according to fishermen, ample opportunity for manipulation. An initiative has been started in Germany with joint effort from scientists and the fishery to better describe the entire net and to produce a proposal for a more comprehensive description, leaving less space for manipulation. A proposal in this direction is given here and shall be seen as a starting point for a discussion and development towards an internationally uniform net, which is agreed amongst the fishery, scientists and politicians. The Baltic Sea fishery is invited to comment on this proposal, and recommendations for further improvement and specifications are welcomed. Once the design is agreed by the Baltic Fishermen Association, it shall be proposed to the IBSFC and European Commission via the Baltic Fishermen Association.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-05-02
    Description: During the autumn session of the ICES Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ACFM) the stock of the Arctic, Northern and Southern Shelf, North Sea and Skagerrak have been analysed and assessed, as well as the mackerel and horse mackerel, sardine, anchovy and Pandalus, eel and harp and hooded seals. For a number of stocks ICES recommends a reduction in fishing mortality. Moreover, ICES recommends for many stocks to establish recovery and management plans, to safe guarda continuous development of the stocks towards safe biological limits.
    Keywords: Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-05-08
    Description: The spring session of ACFM gave advice for a number of stocks in the North Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic. The present assessment of the situation is given here for stocks of higher importance for the German fishery. These are: Blue Whiting: the stock is still relatively high, this, however, will not last very long, due to too intense fishing. Cod in Kattegat: stock is outside safe biological limits. No immediate recovery in sight. Cod in 22–24 (Baltic): stock is inside save biological limits. F, however, is above the recommendation of the IBSFC. Greenland Halibut: state of the stock not quite clear. The present fishing intensity seems to be sustainable. Herring (Atlanto- scandian, Norwegian spring spawner): stock is within safe biological limits, weak recruitment of the recent years will lead to a reduction of biomass. Herring: for Baltic spring spawner in 22–24 and IIIa still no increasing tendency detectable. North Sea Herring: further increasing tendency, with 900 000 t over B lim, good recruitment. Herring in VIa: stable. Redfish: generally decreasing tendency observed, a reduction of the fishery is recommended. Signs of recovery, however, visible for some units
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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