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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: In response to the question 'what to do next' at Mars we explore the value of a high precision in situ measurement of isotopic and trace gas constituents in the atmosphere combined with a similar analysis of gas extracted from near surface rocks and soils. The scientific goals are to advance our understanding of the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and to search for fossils of past geochemical conditions. One element of this program that ties directly to the goals of the Astrobiology Program will be a sensitive search for simple or complex organic molecules contained in the atmosphere and in the solid phase. The broad chemical and isotopic analysis planned insures that a highly successful program will be carried out even if no organics are detected. We will demonstrate that the technology to carry out this Program is presently in hand.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Concepts and Approaches for Mars Exploration; Part 2; 204-205; LPI-Contrib-1062-Pt-2
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: We present details of a miniature integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer and sample handling system under development to address some of the needs for in situ sample analysis on landed missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII; LPI-Contrib-1109
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The rate of discovery of new Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the success of D-S 1 and NEAR-Shoemaker, suggest that sample return from NEAs is now technically feasible. Here we present a summary of a recent workshop on the topic. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII; LPI-Contrib-1080
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to report the 'early returns' on the physical properties of soil units and rocks at the MER landing sites. Because we are still very early in the mission at Meridiani Planum, results from the Gusev Crater Landing Site are emphasized here.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Missions; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Montgolfiere balloons can provide a unique near-surface platform for an extended traverse over the polar regions of Mars. During the polar summer, such solar powered balloons would remain in the constant sun of the polar summer and could remain airborne for many weeks or even months as the atmospheric circulation would drive the balloons around the polar region many times before the balloon would cross the terminator. Such a platform for scientific measurements could provide in situ sampling of the atmosphere for trace disequilibrium species that might be indicators of present geological or biological activity in this region. It could furthermore provide high resolution imaging, deep electromagnetic (EM) sounding for subsurface stratigraphy and liquid water, and high spatial resolution neutron measurements of subsurface ice. Technologies for robust balloon deployment on entry and controlled encounters with the surface and near subsurface for sample acquisition in otherwise inaccessible regions are presently being studied and developed with support from NASA.
    Keywords: Exobiology
    Type: Third International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration; LPI-Contrib-1184
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Since the 1960s, claims have been made that water ice deposits should exist in permanently shadowed craters near both lunar poles. Recent interpretations of data from the Lunar Prospector-Neutron Spectrometer (LP- NS) confirm that significant concentrations of hydrogen exist, probably in the form of water ice, in the permanently shadowed polar cold traps. Yet, due to the large spatial resolution (45-60 Ian) of the LP-NS measurements relative to these shadowed craters (approx.5-25 km), these data offer little certainty regarding the precise location, form or distribution of these deposits. Even less is known about how such deposits of water ice might effect lunar regolith physical properties relevant to mining, excavation, water extraction and construction. These uncertainties will need to be addressed in order to validate fundamental lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) precepts by 2011. Given the importance of the in situ utilization of water and other resources to the future of space exploration a need arises for the advanced deployment of a robotic and reconfigurable system for physical properties and resource reconnaissance. Based on a collection of high-TRL. designs, the Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler (SASH) addresses these needs, particularly determining the location and form of water ice and the physical properties of regolith. SASH would be capable of: (1) subsurface access via drilling, on the order of 3-10 meters into both competent targets (ice, rock) and regolith, (2) down-hole analysis through drill string embedded instrumentation and sensors (Neutron Spectrometer and Microscopic Imager), enabling water ice identification and physical properties measurements; (3) core and unconsolidated sample acquisition from rock and regolith; (4) sample handling and processing, with minimized contamination, sample containerization and delivery to a modular instrument payload. This system would be designed with three mission enabling goals, including: (1) a self-contained, low power, low mass, "black box'' configuration for operations from a lander, various classes of rovers or a surface-based platform with human assistance or robotic anchoring mechanisms; (2) reconfigurable and scalable sample handling for delivery to various types of instrumentation, depending on mission requirements; and (3) the use of advanced automation control and diagnostic techniques that will afford local human deployed, remote teleoperation and fully autonomous intelligent operations. Though a great deal of technology has been advanced toward these objectives, the SASH system faces significant design challenges, including the low gravity environment, various levels of autonomy in operations, radiation exposure, dust contamination, and temperature extremes and deltas. Significant input from the scientific and engineering communities, as well as a significant environmental testing program, will be required to guide the design process.
    Keywords: Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
    Type: Space Resources Roundtable VI; 21; LPI-Contrib-1224
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The Mars Surveyor program requires tools for martian surface exploration, including remote sensing, in-situ sensing, and sample collection. The Athena Mars rover payload is a suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools designed to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition; (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials; (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials; and (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload is designed to be implemented on a long-range rover such as the one now under consideration for the 2003 Mars opportunity. The payload is at a high state of maturity, and most of the instruments have now been built for flight.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-6410 , Concepts and Approaches for Mars Exploration; Part 2; 289-290; LPI-Contrib-1062-Pt-2
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Forum on Innovative Approaches to Outer Planetary Exploration 2001-2020; 77; LPI-Contrib-1084
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  • 9
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Forum on Innovative Approaches to Outer Planetary Exploration 2001-2020; 67; LPI-Contrib-1084
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Montgolfiere balloons can provide a unique near-surface platform for an extended traverse over the polar regions of Mars. During the polar summer, such solar powered balloons would remain in the constant sun of the polar summer and could remain airborne for many weeks or even months as the atmospheric circulation would drive the balloons around the polar region many times before the balloon would cross the terminator. Such a platform for scientific measurements could provide in situ sampling of the atmosphere for trace disequilibrium species that might be indicators of present geological or biological activity in this regon. It could furthermore provide high resolution imaging, deep electromagnetic (EM) sounding for subsurface stratigraphy and liquid water, and high spatial resolution neutron measurements of subsurface ice. Technologies for robust balloon deployment on entry and controlled encounters with the surface and near subsurface for sample acquisition in otherwise inaccessible regions are presently being studied and developed with support from NASA.
    Keywords: Exobiology
    Type: 3rd International Conference on Mars; Oct 13, 2003 - Oct 17, 2003; Alberta; Canada
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