Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Abstract Measurements of two-components of velocity in the wake of a square cylinder using a hot-wire anemometer are reported. Two Reynolds numbers, namely 8700 and 17,625, have been considered. The measurements were carried out in a low-speed, low-turbulence wind tunnel. Benchmark experiments at much lower Reynolds numbers show good agreement between the present experiments and published results. At higher Reynolds numbers, the experimental data reveal anticipated trends in terms of wake recovery and turbulence decay. Both velocity and velocity fluctuations show symmetry about the wake axis. The experimental data have been compared with the large eddy simulation (LES) calculation reported by Wang et al. [University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign (1996) Report CFD 96-03] and LDV measurements of Lyn et al. [J Fluid Mech (1995) 304: 285–319]. The agreement among the three sets is generally acceptable in terms of the time-averaged velocity components, but not the velocity fluctuations. The turbulence fluctuations in the present experiments are seen to be lower than in the referred work. The differences have been traced to factors such as the aspect ratio, blockage ratio and upstream turbulence. Experiments with increased upstream turbulence did show a reduction in the discrepancy between the present experiments and the published data. An assessment of the experimental data in terms of physical mechanisms revealed that (a) streamwise normal stresses were correlated with the vortex centers, and (b) the turbulence kinetic energy profiles are similar to the turbulence shear stress. Spectral analysis of the velocity signals was carried out in the present work. Energy transfer from the mean flow to the streamwise velocity fluctuation was confirmed in the near wake. A redistribution of the kinetic energy between the streamwise and transverse components of velocity over a longer distance downstream was subsequently observed.
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