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  • 1
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A compact toroid inductively stores the energy released by a capacitor bank as it is being accelerated. This energy can be stored for a period of more than ten microseconds and then transferred to a load on a much shorter time scale. This article presents framing camera images of the radial compression of plasma trailing behind a compact toroid as the compact toroid leaves its inner electrode. This compression illustrates the basic principles of a compact toroid plasma opening switch which could be used to drive fast z pinches. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effect of rotation on the heat and particle transport is measured in the DIII–D tokamak [Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] for high-confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas with edge localized modes. In a novel experiment, transport is compared for nearly identical scans of the relative gyroradius in co- and counter-rotating plasmas. Since the plasma profiles are the same, the difference in the transport scaling can be attributed to changes in the sheared E×B flow caused by the shift in the toroidal plasma velocity. The ion heat and particle transport are found to be sensitive to the change in the rotation direction and magnitude whereas the electron heat transport is not. Simulations using a gyroLandau-fluid drift wave transport model show that the variation in the ion heat transport for co/counter rotation is due to changes in the E×B shear stabilization, but the electrons appear to be governed by a different transport mechanism. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: An analysis of experimentally measured particle transport in tokamak plasmas with negative central magnetic shear is presented. The analysis is presented in terms of a simple model for turbulent transport which allows the separation of diagonal and off diagonal terms and allows the direct comparison of particle and energy transport. Comparing the measured fluxes to the fluxes predicted by a simple quasi analytical model which specifies a relation between the diagonal and off diagonal terms allows an understanding of the reason for the difference between energy and particle fluxes. In the center of discharges with a region of enhanced confinement (or internal transport barrier), the ion thermal diffusivity becomes small and comparable to neoclassical values and the particle diffusivity also becomes small and approaches the neoclassical values. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Particle confinement was compared for the high confinement mode plasmas with the edge localized mode in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [S. Ishida, JT-60 Team, Nucl. Fusion 39, 1211 (1999)] and the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 159] considering separate confinement times for particles supplied by neutral beam injection (NBI) (center fueling) and by recycling and gas-puffing (edge fueling). Similar dependence on the NBI power was obtained in JT-60U and DIII-D. The particle confinement time for center fueling in DIII-D was smaller by a factor of 4 in the low density discharges and by a factor of 1.8 in the high density discharges than JT-60U scaling, respectively, suggesting the stronger dependence on the density in DIII-D. The particle confinement time for edge fueling in DIII-D was comparable with JT-60U scaling in the low density discharges. However, it decreased to a much smaller value in the high density discharges. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Plasmas 7 (2000), S. 68-72 
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The expansion in powers of the electron charge, e, for a neutral system of electrons (fermions) and ions (Maxwell–Boltzmann particles) is extended to order e4 for arbitrary values of temperature and density. The methods of calculation of the series terms will be illustrated, and some of the consequences of these results will be discussed. The ionization profile so derived, at least at high temperatures, will be contrasted with Saha theory. Some special features of hydrogen related to the possible plasma phase transition will be noted. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The design, construction and operation of a tomographic imaging system on the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment is described. The system measures the total radiated power over energies from visible light up into the extreme ultraviolet. It then reconstructs two dimensional profiles from the data. The reconstruction routine is based on a method known as second order regularization which finds a compromise between smoothness and fit to the data. This method was found to have the best overall fidelity to test images. The hardware and overall reconstruction were calibrated using two different sources. First results from the system under real experimental conditions are presented. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 114 (2001), S. 2377-2381 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: External electric fields were used to amplify thermal fluctuations at the interface between two thin liquid films. Similar to the results shown previously for the enhancement of fluctuations at the polymer/air interface, interfacial fluctuations having a well-defined wavelength were enhanced with a characteristic growth rate. A simple theoretical framework to describe the experimental observations is presented. Both experiment and model calculation show a substantial reduction in feature size as a result of the change in surface/interfacial energy when going from the thin film to the bilayer case. Experimentally, features develop nearly 50 times faster for the bilayers in comparison to the polymer/air case. These results point to a simple route by which the nanoscopic feature can be easily and rapidly produced or replicated. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 113 (2000), S. 6566-6572 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We present an improved version of our recent algorithm [B. Paizs, G. Fogarasi, and P. Pulay, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 6571 (1998)] for optimizing the geometries of large molecules. The approximate Cholesky factorization technique has been generalized to the case of redundant coordinates, and an alternative approach involving use of the B†B matrix in the iterative coordinate back transformation is described. The generalized full Cholesky factors of B†B are very sparse and the corresponding force and geometry transformations are fast and numerically stable, permitting us to apply this technique for internal coordinate geometry optimization of molecules containing thousands of atoms. As an example we present optimization data on alpha-helical alanine polypeptides, and various globular proteins. Results for the alanine polypeptides indicates that internal coordinate optimization is clearly superior to the first-order Cartesian optimization techniques generally used in force field calculations. The largest system investigated is alpha-helical Ac-(Ala)999-NH2 containing 9999 atoms, which was successfully optimized using less than a megaword of memory. Optimization of various globular proteins shows that our procedure can easily deal with highly redundant (including full primitive) coordinate sets. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 78 (2001), S. 2276-2278 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report a large peak power enhancement and reduction in pulse width for planar waveguide carbon dioxide lasers. Gain modulation through rf discharge power switching produces trains of laser pulses with peak power levels at up to 38 times the cw power level, with a pulse duration as low as 10 μs. Operation at repetition rates in the kHz region preserves the average power (100 W) of the normal cw/long pulse mode of operation. The laser is shown to operate close to the predicted boundaries dictated by thermal loading of the discharge. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 76 (2000), S. 748-750 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We demonstrate that uniform, ordered, single-domain magnetic nanoscale dots can be fabricated on concentrated colloid surfaces. The substrate consists of compact silica nanosphere arrays grown on a glass wafer. Through the subsequent deposition and oxidation treatment of a Co film, monodisperse magnetic Co nanoscale dot arrays with controlled magnetic properties and size were obtained. We suggest that magnetic dots deposited on colloidal surfaces might open a way of developing artificially nanostructured materials for fundamental studies in nanomagnetism and for applications such as patterned magnetic recording media. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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