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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Androgenesis ; Gynogenesis ; Tilapia Gene bank ; Chromosome manipulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Androgenesis is a potentially valuable technique for recovering fish from gene banks composed of cryopreserved sperm, developing inbred lines, and analyzing patterns of inheritance. The procedure for producing diploid organisms whose nuclear DNA is wholly of paternal origin is dependent on: (1) the denucleation of “host” eggs, and (2) the inhibition of the first mitotic division in order to double the haploid sperm chromosome complement following fertilization of host eggs. Denucleation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) eggs was carried out using UV irradiation. Treatment durations of 5–8 min (total dose of 450–720 J/m2) produced acceptable yields of viable denucleated eggs [22.9±1.6% (±SE) of controls] as estimated by the survival of haploid androgenetic tilapia to 48 h post-fertilization. Successful mitotic inhibition was accomplished using a heat-shock of 42.5 °C for 3–4 min, applied at 2.5-min intervals from 22.5 to 30 min post-fertilization (mpf). The mean survival of androgenetic diploid fish to yolk-sac absorption for treatment groups varied from 0.4% to 5.3%, relative to the controls. Differences in the suceptibility of eggs from different females to UV irradiation were a significant factor in the overall yield of androgenetic diploids. Paternal effects did not significantly influence the androgenetic yield, suggesting that individual males would not be selected against. For comparative purposes mitotic gynogenetic “mitogyne” diploids were produced from UV-irradiated sperm. Mean survival to yolk-sac absorption varied from 0.5% to 10.64%, relative to controls. Similar optima for androgenetic and gynogenetic induction were found in the period 25–27.5 mpf (minutes post-fertilization). Induction treatments would appear to be operating on the same developmental events in both these techniques, and the results suggest that the UV irradiations used do relatively little damage to the eggs beyond nuclear inactivation. The results indicate that the production of androgenetic O. niloticus is possible on a consistent basis and that the application of this technique may be useful in quantitative and conservation genetics.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: International Conference and Workshops on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing; Las Vegas, NV; United States
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Information developed during recently completed evaluations of the status of seven species of anadromous Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest was used to characterize patterns of intraspecific diversity along three major axes: ecology, life history and biochemical genetics. Within the study area, the species’ ranges, and therefore the number of distinct ecological regions inhabited differ considerably, with pink and chum salmon limited to the northern areas and chinook salmon and steelhead distributed over the widest geographic range. The species showed comparable differences in the patterns of life history and genetic diversity, with chinook and sockeye salmon and steelhead having the most major diversity groups and pink, chum and coho salmon having the least. Both life history and genetic diversity showed a strong, positive correlation with the extent of ecological diversity experienced by a species, and the correlation between the number of major genetic and life history groups within a species was even stronger (r=0.96; P〈0.05). Departures from these general diversity relationships found in some species (especially sockeye and coho salmon and cutthroat trout) can be explained by different interactions with the freshwater environment and, for cutthroat trout, by the occurrence of substantial intrapopulational diversity in life history traits, a hierarchical level not considered in this study.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0863-1778
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0863-1778
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Aus den Versuchen ergibt sich, daß Cuprohydrid bei der Reaktion zwischen Kupfersulfat und unterphosphoriger Säure entsteht, daß aber die Reinheit des Produktes von begrenzten Versuchsbedingungen, besonders von Temperatur und Zeit abhängt. Die Versuche bei gewöhnlicher Temperatur zeigen, daß nach mehrstündigem Stehen das Produkt Hydrid und Oxyd enthält, und auf die Koexistenz dieser beiden Stoffe ist die Explosionsfähigkeit der trockenen Substanz bei Berührung mit Luft zurückzuführen.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated for length and weight of two brood years (BY 1977 and BY 1978) of coho salmon [Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum)] during the marine net-pen phase of rearing. The estimates were calculated from length and weight measurements on progeny resulting from a nested mating design and measurements at approximately 4 and 7 months after entering sea water. Point estimate for heritabilities based on the sire component for BY 1977 were low to moderate (0.02–0.19) and did not differ significantly from zero. On the other hand, BY 1978 estimates ranged from 0.31 to 0.62 and, with two exceptions, were significantly different from zero. The latter estimates may have been inflated by inclusion of variances from non-additive sources, but still indicated that differences in the genetic potential for increased growth between the two year classes may be substantial. Genetic correlations between length and weight within sampling periods were consistently high (0.95–1.00), indicating that pleiotropic gene action or close linkage among genes affects length and weight. Genetic correlations between body size traits (length and weight) between sampling periods varied considerably but suggested a potential for indirect selection gains. Genetic correlation approximations derived using family means or ranks appeared to provide reliable estimates and may be useful when environmental influences cause a significant deviation from normality.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Aquaculture research 26 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Allium sativum ; Benzyladenine ; Picloram ; Thidiazuron ; 2 ; 4-D ; 2iP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A long-term regeneration system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) clones of diverse origin was developed. Callus was initiated on a modified Gamborg's B-5 medium supplemented with 4.5 μM 2,4-D and maintained on the same basal medium with 4.7 μM picloram+0.49 μM 2iP. Regeneration potential of callus after 5, 12 and 16 months on maintenance medium was measured using several plant growth regulator treatments. The 1.4 μM picloram+13.3 μM BA treatment stimulated the highest rate of shoot production. Regeneration rate decreased as callus age increased, but healthy plantlets from callus cultures up to 16-months-old were produced for all clones. Regeneration of long-term garlic callus cultures could be useful for clonal propagation and transformation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Garlic ; Allium sativum L. ; Root segments ; Regeneration ; Picloram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Root segments from shoot tip-derived plantlets of the garlic (Allium sativum L.) clones `DDR7099', `PI383819', and `Piacenza' were utilized as an explant source for continuous, friable callus production. The best callus production occurred on root segments initially cultured on medium with 4,5 μm 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for 8 weeks, then subcultured to medium with 4.7 μm 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) +0.49 μm 6-(γ-γ-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) for 8 weeks. Embryogenic, friable callus was transferred to liquid medium for 1 month and then transferred to solid regeneration medium for 14 weeks. The best shoot and root regeneration (85.3% and 35.8%, respectively) occurred on 4-month-old calli from the clone `DDR7099'. In all clones, regeneration rate decreased as callus age increased.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1437-5613
    Keywords: Key words Population cycles ; Nucleopolyhedrovirus ; NPV ; Insect quality ; Metapopulation ; Island populations ; Forest tent caterpillars ; Sublethal disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cyclic populations of western tent caterpillars fluctuate with a periodicity of 6–11 years in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Typically, larval survival is high in early stages of the population increase, begins to decline midway through the increase phase, and is low through several generations of the population decline. Fecundity is generally high in increasing and in peak populations but is also reduced during the population decline. Poor survival and low fecundity for several generations cause the lag in recovery of populations that is necessary for cyclic dynamics. The dynamics of tent caterpillar populations vary among sites, which suggests a metapopulation structure; island populations in the rainshadow of Vancouver Island have more consistent cyclic dynamics than mainland populations in British Columbia. Sudden outbreaks of populations that last a single year suggest that dispersal from source to sink populations may occur late in the phase of population increase. Wellington earlier discussed qualitative variation among tent caterpillar individuals as an aspect of population fluctuations. The variation in caterpillar activity he observed was largely statistically nonsignificant. Recent observations show that the frequency of elongate tents as described by Wellington to characterize active caterpillars varies among populations but does not change in a consistent pattern with population density. The level of infection from nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) was high in some populations at peak density but was not associated with all population declines. Sublethal infection can reduce the fecundity of surviving moths, and there is a weak association between viral infection and egg mass size in field populations. The impact of weather in synchronizing or desynchronizing populations is a factor to be investigated further.
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