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  • 2010-2014  (77)
  • 2000-2004  (40)
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  • 1
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 207: 131-150.
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: The margin between Cote d'Ivoire and the Niger Delta is a region with a common structural history, this being reflected in similarities in the stratigraphic response and play fairways identified across the region. There has been significant exploration on the narrow shelf characterizing the margin, resulting in a series of modest oil and gas discoveries. It is shown in this paper that many of the aspects of the plays in the unexplored deep-water regions of the margin are considerably more favourable to the development of giant fields than those on the shelf. This play-fairway review is based on the integration of existing publications with focused studies of multiclient 3-D seismic data over a number of areas. Play fairways are classified by seismic sequence and trap type, with an analysis of each undertaken. The most attractive deep-water play types are: (1) anticlinal traps involving late syn-transform (Apto-Albian) and early post-transform (Late Cretaceous) reservoirs, (2) combination traps involving ponded turbidites on the shoreward flanks of these highs, and (3) stratigraphic traps associated with large Late Cretaceous submarine fan complexes. The anticlinal play is associated with the terminations of the St Paul and Romanche fracture zones, with the more recent structuring generally associated with the latter. 3-D imaging and amplitude mapping is critical to prospect delineation, particularly for the combination and stratigraphic plays. Active kitchens are evidenced involving Early and Late Cretaceous source rocks in the Cote d'Ivoire and western Ghana to Nigeria segments of the region, which are consequently upgraded. Considerable volumetric potential is indicated that promises to make the region one of significant new exploration activity in coming years.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Keywords: residual stress ; aluminum alloy ; forging ; solution heat treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys gain their high strength through heat treatment involving a severe quenching operation, which can have the adverse effect of introducing residual stresses. The finite element code ABAQUS is used to simulate the quenching of aluminum alloy 7010 in an attempt to predict the residual stress distribution that develops in simple shapes. The rate of heat transfer from the material is determined using the finite element method to predict the heat transfer coefficient from surface cooling curves achieved experimentally. The flow stress of the material is assumed to be strain rate dependent and to behave in a perfectly plastic manner. The predicted residual stress magnitudes and directions are compared to values determined using the holedrilling strain gage method and the X-ray diffraction technique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: BARE-1 retrotransposon Barley Net blotch resistance Linkage mapping Quantitative trait locus (QTL)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Net blotch, which is caused by the fungus Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg., presents a serious problem for barley production worldwide, and the identification and deployment of sources of resistance to it are key objectives for many breeders. Here, we report the identification of a major resistance gene, accounting for 65% of the response variation, in a cross between the resistant line CI9819 and the susceptible cv. Rolfi. The resistance gene was mapped to chromosome 6H with the aid of two recently developed systems of retrotransposon-based molecular markers, REMAP and IRAP. A total of 239 BARE-1 and Sukkula retrotransposon markers were mapped in the cross, and the 30-cM segment containing the locus with significant resistance effect contained 26 of the markers. The type and local density of the markers should facilitate future map-based cloning of the resistance gene as well as manipulation of the resistance through backcross breeding.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: ascorbate peroxidase ; glutathione reductase ; oxidative stress ; ozone tolerance ; superoxide dismutase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The current study confirmed earlier conclusions regarding differential ozone (O3) tolerances of two soybean cultivars, Essex and Forrest, and evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities of these two varieties based on their performance under environmentally relevant, elevated O3 conditions. The experiment was conducted in open-top chambers in the field during the 1994 and 1995 growing seasons. Exposure of plants to moderately high O3 levels (62.9 nl l−1 air, 2-year seasonal average) caused chlorophyll loss and increased membrane permeability when compared to control plants grown in charcoal filtered air (24.2 nl l−1 air). The other effects of O3 treatment were decrease in seed yield, loss of total sulfhydryl groups, reduction of soluble protein content, and increase in guaiacol peroxidase activity in leaves of both cultivars. The O3-induced increase in guaiacol peroxidase activity was much smaller in cv. Essex leaflets. Cv. Essex had less leaf oxidative damage and smaller reduction in seed yield than cv. Forrest under elevated O3 conditions. During ozonation, mature leaflets of the more O3 tolerant cv. Essex had higher levels of glutathione reductase (30%), ascorbate peroxidase (13%), and superoxide dismutase (45%) activity than did mature leaflets of cv. Forrest. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, which represented 95% of total superoxide dismutase activity in the two cultivars, appeared to be increased by O3 exposure in the leaflets of O3 tolerant cv. Essex but not in those of cv. Forrest. Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase activity was also higher in leaflets of cv. Essex than in cv. Forrest regardless of O3 level. Stromal ascorbate peroxidase and Mn-superoxide dismutase activity did not appear to be involved in the O3 tolerance of the two soybean cultivars.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: ascorbic acid ; ascorbate-glutathione cycle ; bean yield ; dehydroascorbate ; ozone ; photosynthesis ; soybean ; vegetative yield
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We examined the characteristics of ascorbic acid (ASC) level, dehydroascorbate (DHA) level, and the ASC–DHA redox status in the leaflets of two soybean cultivars grown in a field environment and exposed to elevated ozone (O3) levels. These two cultivars, one that preliminary evidence indicated to be O3-tolerant (cv Essex), and one that was indicated to be O3-sensitive (cv Forrest), were grown in open-top chambers during the summer of 1997. The plants were exposed daily to a controlled, moderately high O3 level (≈58 nl l−1 air) in the light, beginning at the seedling stage and continuing to bean maturity. Concurrently, control plants were exposed to carbon-filtered, ambient air containing a relatively low O3 level (≈24 nl l−1 air) during the same period. Elevated O3 did not affect biomass per plant, mature leaf area accretion, or bean yield per plant of cv Essex. In contrast, elevated O3 level decreased the biomass and bean yield per plant of cv Forrest by approximately 20%. Daily leaflet photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance per unit area did not decrease in either cultivar as a result of prolonged O3 exposure. A 10% lower mature leaflet area in O3-treated cv Forrest plants contributed to an ultimate limitation in long-term photosynthetic productivity (vegetative and bean yield). Possible factors causing cv Essex to be more O3 tolerant than cv Forrest were: 1) mature leaflets of control and O3-treated cv Essex plants consistently maintained a higher daily ASC level than leaflets of cv Forrest plants, and 2) mature leaflets of cv Essex plants maintained a higher daily ASC–DHA redox status than leaflets of cv Forrest plants.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Hordeum vulgare ; net blotch ; resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Results from tests of a mixture of Finnish net blotch, Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg., isolates on a differential series of barley seedlings, comprising 17genotypes, indicated that patterns of infection response (IR)and percentage leaf area damaged (PLAD) were unaffected by differences in seedling size. Variation of the concentration of inoculum between 1,250 conidia ml-1 and 20,000 conidia ml-1 produced similar patterns of IR and PLAD on the differential series. IR and PLAD scored on the second seedling leaf differentiated resistance to P. teres f. teresamong the genotypes better than on the first seedling leaf. Ina second experiment, 120 single-spore P. teres f. teres isolates from Finland, Sweden, Norway, Latvia, Estonia and Ireland were used in tests conducted in the greenhouse to differentiate them in terms of virulence reaction on seedlings of six differential barley genotypes. Each isolate was tested directly following isolation from the leaf material and after having passaged each through barley cvs. Arve or Pohto, to produce 360 isolates in total. Virulence of the isolates differed significantly on the members of the differential series, but differences associated with country of origin and passaging, and interactions, were small. It is concluded that little variation between virulence of P. teres f. teres isolates is evident over a large geographic area, incorporating Nordic and Baltic countries, and Ireland. Barley genotype response to P. teres f. teres appeared to be of more significance than relative virulence of the pathogen isolates. This could simplify breeding barley for improved resistance to this phytopathogen.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0603
    Keywords: Flow cytometry ; Muscle cell ; Porcine ; Transfection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A detailed methodology is described for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of porcine muscle cells that have been transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). Cells are liberated from porcine skeletal muscle and primary cultures are transfected with DNA encoding GFP. Primary cultures are subjected to immunocytochemistry using a primary muscle-specific monoclonal antibody followed by incubation with a phycoerythrin-conjugated second antibody. Transfected myoblasts aresorted from fibroblasts using forward angle light scatter and ninety degree light scatter, phycoerythrin fluorescence, and GFP fluorescence. These procedures allow for isolation of genetically-engineered porcine muscle cells more rapidly than traditional clonal selection procedures. Consequently, FACS provides porcine myoblast populations that retain the majority of their replicative capacity and are not contaminated with non-myogenic cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The specific size and structure of the edge current profile has important effects on the magnetohydrodynamic stability and ultimate performance of many advanced tokamak (AT) operating modes. This is true for both bootstrap and externally driven currents that may be used to tailor the edge shear. Absent a direct local measurement of j(r), the best alternative is a determination of the poloidal field. Measurements of the precision (0.1°–0.01° in magnetic pitch angle and 1–10 ms) necessary to address issues of stability and control and provide constraints for EFIT are difficult to do in the region of interest (ρ=0.9–1.1). Using Zeeman polarization spectroscopy of the 2S–2P lithium resonance line emission from the DIII-D LIBEAM [D. M. Thomas, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 806 (1995); D. M. Thomas, A. W. Hyatt, and M. P. Thomas, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 340 (1990)] measurements of the various field components may be made to the necessary precision in exactly the region of interest to these studies. Because of the negligible Stark mixing of the relevant atomic levels, this method of determining j(r) is insensitive to the large local electric fields typically found in enhanced confinement (H mode) edges, and thus avoids an ambiguity common to motional Stark effect measurements of B. Key issues for utilizing this technique include good beam quality, an optimum viewing geometry, and a suitable optical prefilter to isolate the polarized emission line. A prospective diagnostic system for the DIII-D AT program will be described. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 425 (2003), S. 65-69 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Late Devonian genus Ichthyostega was for many decades the earliest known tetrapod, and the sole representative of a transitional form between a fish and a land vertebrate. However, despite being known since 1932 (ref. 1) from a large collection of specimens, its morphology ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the in vitro germination and viability of conidia of the apple brown rot fungus (Monilinia fructigena), and on colonization and sporulation on detached fruits by M. fructigena. Conidia only germinated under near-saturation humidity (≥ 97% RH) and the rate of germination initially increased with temperature to a maximum at ≈ 23–25°C and then decreased. Conidia germinated rapidly – more than 70% of viable conidia had germinated within 2 h at 20 and 25°C. The rate of colonization on detached fruits increased log-linearly with increasing temperature. Sporulation on detached fruits was not observed at 5 or 25°C; sporulation appeared to be unaffected by either temperature (10–20°C) or RH (45–98%) once infection was established. Detached conidia remained viable for a long period of time, up to 20 days, the longest assessment time in this study, depending on storage temperature (10 or 20°C) and RH (45 or 85%). Temperature appeared to be more important than RH in affecting conidial viability. Low temperature and high RH resulted in reduced loss of conidial viability. Storage at 10°C and 85% RH for up to 20 days appeared not to affect conidial viability. These results indicate that environmental conditions during the main UK growing seasons are unlikely to be limiting factors for the development of brown rot on apple.
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