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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 213 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The detection of ancient microbial DNA offers a new approach for the study of infectious diseases, their occurrence, frequency and host–pathogen interaction in historic times and populations. Moreover, data obtained from skeletal and mummified tissue may represent an important completion of contemporary phylogenetic analyses of pathogens. In the last few years, a variety of bacterial, protozoal and viral infections have been detected in ancient tissue samples by amplification and characterization of specific DNA fragments. This holds particularly true for the identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which seems to be more robust than other microbes due to its waxy, hydrophobic and lipid-rich cell wall. These observations provided useful information about the occurrence, but also the frequency of tuberculosis in former populations. Moreover, these studies suggest new evolutionary models and indicate the route of transmission between human and animals. Until now, other pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, Yersinia pestis, Plasmodium falciparum and others, have occasionally been identified – mostly in single case studies or small sample sizes – as well, although much less information is available on these pathogens in ancient settings. The main reason therefore seems to be the degradation and modification of ancient DNA by progressive oxidative damage. Furthermore, the constant risk of contamination by recent DNA forces to take time and cost effective measures and renders the analysis of ancient microbes difficult. Nevertheless, the study of microbial ancient DNA significantly contributes to the understanding of transmission and spread of infectious diseases, and potentially to the evolution and phylogenetic pathways of pathogens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0143-991X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The application of robotics in manufacturing industry is increasingly spreading to other fields such as service, security and medical, and more recently into orthopedic surgery. Most research projects to date have concentrated on the lighter side of non-invasive surgery, camera, laser guidance, light cutting and milling through bone. Just as in industrial production and processing applications, the choice of robot and its accompanying control and programming system is absolutely paramount. This simple fact has been justified in recent research dealing with the heavier forms of fracture repositioning robotics in accident surgery. This paper discusses the development of the complete system including robot, end-effector and sensors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: This study analyses the link between fiscal frameworks and their budgetary impact. We look at different features of national numerical fiscal rules in combination with fiscal councils and medium-term budgeting frameworks. We construct our own time-varying dataset for national fiscal frameworks for the period 1990-2012 covering all 27 EU Member States and estimate a dynamic panel on aggregate and disaggregated fiscal policy variables. We find strong support that numerical fiscal rules help to improve the primary balance, and that the budgetary impact can be further strengthened when supported by independent fiscal councils and an effective medium-term budgeting framework.
    Keywords: E61 ; E62 ; H60 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal council ; fiscal framework ; Fiscal Policy ; fiscal rules ; medium term budgeting framework
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-03-31
    Description: Official and unilateral dollarisation/euroisation has become a common policy advice for emerging market economies. Against this background, the paper provides a comprehensive review of all the main cases of dollarisation/euroisation, analysing motives, features and policy implications of this exchange rate regime. The main results are that policies fostering integration with the anchor country, in particular fiscal transfers, tourism and offshore finance, have been crucial in supporting the exchange rate regime. To this end, most dollarised/euroised countries have exploited advantages that are largely prior to the choice of exchange rate regime, namely their small size, geographic proximity to the anchor country, and politically dependent status. Thus, recommending dollarisation/euroisation irrespective of countries’ ex ante degree of integration with the potential anchor country seems to bear considerable risks, as dollarisation/euroisation does not seem to be a straightforward substitute for integration.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Währungssubstitution ; Euro ; US-Dollar ; Optimaler Währungsraum ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-03-31
    Description: This paper reviews the strategies announced by the ten countries joining the European Union in May 2004 with regard to their intentions for participation in ERM II and the adoption of the euro. The paper examines the economic rationale of the monetary integration strategies declared by most acceding countries with a view to identifying also their potential risks. It does so by making use of several different approaches, including a short review of nominal convergence and a more extensive discussion from an optimum currency area perspective. An important part of the analysis is devoted to the implications of real convergence – i.e. catching-up growth in income and adjustment of the real economic structures towards those prevailing in the euro area – on the patterns of economic dynamics in acceding countries. Other aspects covered are the risks for external competitiveness in the convergence process and the appropriate pace of fiscal consolidation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Europäisches Währungssystem ; Euro ; EU-Mitgliedschaft ; Osteuropa ; Malta ; Zypern
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-01-01
    Description: Dealing with the threat of anthropogenic climate change has been a challenge for policy makers for a long time. In recent years, the problems posed by climate change and solutions proposed to mitigate its effects have been framed by lexical ‘carbon compounds’, such as carbon footprint or carbon trading and by one dominant metaphor, the market metaphor. Through a detailed content analysis of industry and press coverage from 1985 to the present, this paper examines the fate of one important lexical compound in this context, namely low carbon , which can be used as an adjective or a noun. Over the last two decades this lexical compound moved across and between three discourses, the steel industry, the car industry and what one might call the climate change industry. Using insights from ecolinguistics and the sociology of expectations, the paper discusses how the lexical compound low carbon in general and the metaphor low carbon future in particular came to prominence in policy discourses, especially in the UK, and how they were used to frame expectations of a prosperous low carbon future , while sidelining deeper social and cultural reflections on climate change mitigation. ©2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0009
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1480
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-09-05
    Print ISSN: 0963-2719
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-7015
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Philosophy
    Published by White Horse Press
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0040-1951
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3266
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2010-01-01
    Print ISSN: 1757-7780
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-7799
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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