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  • 1
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The room-temperature epitaxial growth of CeO2 films on Si(111) substrates was examined in situ by combined use of a coaxial impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS) and the laser molecular beam epitaxy (laser MBE). It was found that the crystal quality of CeO2 ultrathin films (∼3 nm thick) as-grown in UHV (∼10−9 Torr) could be improved remarkably by a few minutes of O2 gas exposure (∼10−5 Torr) at room temperature. A three-fold symmetry in the Ce signal intensity of azimuth rotational CAICISS spectra, which exhibited the type-B epitaxial growth ([1¯10]CeO2||[11¯0]Si), was observed for the films thicker than about 1 nm. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The energy distribution of the ion beam extracted from the compact microwave ion source for extremely low voltage ion extraction was measured with Ar and CO as a discharge gas. The energy distribution was measured by the retarding field method, and changes with respect to the change in gas pressure were observed. The obtained data were arranged by the peak energy and the energy spread. For both gases, the peak energy and the energy spread decreased with an increase in the gas pressure. The energy spread of approximately 5 eV with the peak energy of 15 eV were obtained for Ar gas at the pressure of 10−2 Pa. For CO gas, the peak energy was higher than Ar and approximately 20 eV. The energy spread was 6 eV at the pressure of 10−2 Pa. These values agreed with the peak energy and energy spread that were estimated previously from the mass spectra analysis. Since the ion source was designed to be used in the researches of low energy ion-solid interaction, these characteristics satisfy the requirements for this purpose. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 78 (2001), S. 2664-2666 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Epitaxial anatase thin films were fabricated on lattice-matched (−0.2%) LaAlO3 (001) substrates in the layer-by-layer fashion by laser molecular-beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope show the films to exhibit high crystallinity and atomically defined interfaces. By virtue of the adoption of LaAlO3 substrate, which is transparent to photoexcitation of TiO2, optical band gaps could be determined to be 3.3 eV at room temperature. A photoluminescence band due to recombination of self-trapped excitons was observed at 5 K to give the peak maximum at 2.2 eV. As a result of the high degree of orientation of the epitaxial films, anisotropic optical absorption was clearly observed. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 77 (2000), S. 3565-3567 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: SiGe bulk crystal fabricated by a multicomponent zone-melting method was used as a substrate for epitaxial growth of GaAs. Compared with conventional GaAs/Ge heterostructure, the lattice mismatch of GaAs/Si0.022Ge0.978 was confirmed to be reduced by a decrease of the peak separation of (400) x-ray diffraction from the epitaxial GaAs layer and the substrate. Furthermore, the linewidth of the rocking curve of GaAs on SiGe was found to be narrower than that of GaAs on Ge. These results show that SiGe is promising material as an alternative substrate to Ge for realization of exactly lattice-matched GaAs/SiGe solar cells. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A systemic iridoviral disease associated with high mortality was initially recognized in cultured mullet, Mugil cephalus L., and tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Forsskal, by histopathology and transmission electron microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on tissues and viral isolates, using four published primer sets developed for the Red Sea bream iridovirus (RSIV). An indirect fluorescent antibody test was also performed on virus-infected ATCC gruntfin (GF) and seabass, Lates calcarifer Bloch, (SB) cells using a monoclonal antibody, RSIV M10. Our results suggested that the mullet and tiger grouper iridovirus bears genetic and antigenic similarities to RSIV.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 6064-6066 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Optimum junction resistance and minimum tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio required for high density and high performance magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) devices with a TMR cell plus field effect transistor (FET) switch architecture are discussed by taking into account the variation of FET resistance causing noise. This implies that a TMR ratio over 25% at a 400 mV bias voltage and junction resistance of several tens of kilo-ohms for TMR cells are required with a signal voltage of 30 mV and a sense current of 10 μA, which leads to about 10 ns read time. This large magnetoresistance ratio at the elevated bias voltage requires low bias voltage dependence of TMR for the MRAM devices. In order to try to meet this requirement, double tunnel junctions were fabricated which possess the central ferromagnetic layer consisting of a thin discontinuous layer of hard ferromagnetic Co80Pt20 nanoparticles and insulating Al2O3 prepared by alternate sputtering of Co80Pt20 and Al2O3 targets. The maximum TMR obtained was 20.5% at room temperature for FeCo top and bottom electrodes without annealing. Bias voltage dependence of the (NiFe/CoFe)/1.5 nm Al2O3/discontinuous CoPt/2.6 nm Al2O3/(CoFe/NiFe) double tunnel junctions were revealed to be small compared to that of single junctions, the barrier of which was also fabricated by sputtering of an Al2O3 target. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Although several molecules have been shown to play important roles in subtype specification of neocortical neurons, the entire mechanism involved in the specification, in particular, of upper cortical plate (UCP) neurons still remains unclear. The UCP, which is responsible for intracortical connections in the neocortex, comprises histologically, functionally, and molecularly...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-12
    Description: We present statistical properties of diffuse Lyα haloes (LAHs) around high- z star-forming galaxies with large Subaru samples of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.2. We make subsamples defined by the physical quantities of LAEs’ central Lyα luminosities, ultraviolet (UV) magnitudes, Lyα equivalent widths, and UV slopes, and investigate LAHs’ radial surface brightness (SB) profiles and scale lengths r n as a function of these physical quantities. We find that there exist prominent LAHs around LAEs with faint Lyα luminosities, bright UV luminosities, and small Lyα equivalent widths in cumulative radial Lyα SB profiles. We confirm this trend with the anticorrelation between r n and Lyα luminosities (equivalent widths) based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient that is = –0.9 (–0.7) corresponding to the 96 per cent (93 per cent) confidence level, although the correlation between r n and UV magnitudes is not clearly found in the rank correlation coefficient. Our results suggest that LAEs with properties similar to typical Lyman-break galaxies (with faint Lyα luminosities and small equivalent widths) possess more prominent LAHs. We investigate scenarios for the major physical origins of LAHs with our results. Because we find relatively small Lyα equivalent widths up to 77 Å in LAHs that include LAEs’ central components, these results suggest that the cold stream scenario is not preferred. There remain two possible scenarios of Lyα scattering in circumgalactic medium and satellite galaxies that cannot be tested with our observational data.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-12-13
    Description: This study evaluates 3D cloud effects on the radiation budget with a combined use of active sensor CPR/CLOUDSAT and imager MODIS/AQUA data on the A-train. An algorithm is devised for constructing 3D cloud fields based on satellite-observed cloud information. The 3D cloud fields thus constructed are used to calculate the broadband solar and thermal radiative fluxes with a 3D radiative transfer code developed by the authors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cloud morphology on solar radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere. For this purpose, 3D cloud fields are constructed with the new satellite-based method, to which full 3D-RT simulations are applied. The simulated 3D radiation fields are then used to examine and quantify errors of existing typical plane parallel approximations, i.e. Plane-Parallel Approximation (PPA), Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA) and Tilted Independent Pixel Approximation (TIPA). Such 3D-RT simulations also serve to address another objective of this study, i.e. to devise an accurate approximation and to characterize the observed specific 3D-RT effects by the cloud morphology based on knowledge of idealized 3D-RT effects. We introduce a modified approach based on an optimum value of diffusivity factor to better approximate the radiative fluxes for arbitrary solar zenith angle determined from the results of 3D radiative transfer simulations to redeem the overcorrections of these approximations for large Solar Zenith Angles (SZAs). This new approach, called Slant path Independent Pixel Approximation (SIPA), is found to be better than other approximations when SZA is large for some cloud cases. Based on the SZA dependence of the errors of these approximations relative to 3D computations, satellite-observed real cloud cases are found to fall into either of three types of different morphologies, i.e. isolated cloud type, upper cloud-roughened type and lower cloud-roughened type. Such a classification offers a novel insight into error characteristics of the approximations that are interpreted in the context of specific cloud morphology.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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