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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 100 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 150 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 110 data points
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  • 4
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 222: 229-240.
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: This study uses the example of two small sedimentary basins to draw lessons for the stacking patterns of submarine fan facies in restricted basins. The Te Anau and Waiau basins are located in southwest New Zealand. They developed from the Middle Eocene onwards close to and under the direct influence of the evolving Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Although never more than a few tens of kilometres wide, both basins accumulated sedimentary successions more than 6 km thick. We discuss the scale, nature and composition of submarine fans within the basins. Sediment stacking patterns are characterized by rapid lateral and vertical changes within the full range of facies predicted by most submarine fan models. Despite the small basin size, some submarine fans contain sandstone bodies of impressive thickness (50 m) and many kilometres lateral extent. Such bodies of well-sorted, highly permeable sandstone are excellent potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. The occurrence of complete Bouma sequences and well-developed couplets of clastic- and hemipelagic mudstones indicates that such features are not restricted to large-scale fans (covering thousands of square kilometres). Even in small sedimentary basins, submarine fans can develop that show an impressive range of sedimentary facies and architectural elements, commonly described only from their large-scale counterparts.
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  • 5
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We study human capital accumulation in an environment of competitive search. Given that unemployed workers can default on their education loans, skilled individuals with a larger debt burden prefer riskier but better paid careers than is socially desirable. A higher level of employment risk in turn depresses the skill premium and the incentives to invest in education. The equilibrium allocation is characterized by too much unemployment, underinvestment by the poor, and too little investment in skill-intensive technologies. A public education system funded by graduate taxes can restore efficiency. More generally, differences in education funding can account for cross-country variations in wage inequality.
    Keywords: I22 ; ddc:330 ; Directed search ; investment ; education finance ; Bildungsverhalten ; Bildungsinvestition ; Arbeitsuche ; Wettbewerb ; Bildungsfinanzierung ; Allokationseffizienz ; Öffentliche Bildungsausgaben ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Horsfield, Brian; Schenk, H J; Zink, Klaus-Gerhard; Ondrak, Robert; Dieckmann, V; Kallmeyer, Jens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; di Primio, Rolando; Wilkes, Heinz; Parkes, R John; Cragg, Barry A (2006): Living microbial ecosystems within the active zone of catagenesis: Implications for feeding the deep biosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 246(1-2), 55-69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.040
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Earth's largest reactive carbon pool, marine sedimentary organic matter, becomes increasingly recalcitrant during burial, making it almost inaccessible as a substrate for microorganisms, and thereby limiting metabolic activity in the deep biosphere. Because elevated temperature acting over geological time leads to the massive thermal breakdown of the organic matter into volatiles, including petroleum, the question arises whether microorganisms can directly utilize these maturation products as a substrate. While migrated thermogenic fluids are known to sustain microbial consortia in shallow sediments, an in situ coupling of abiotic generation and microbial utilization has not been demonstrated. Here we show, using a combination of basin modelling, kinetic modelling, geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry, that microorganisms inhabit the active generation zone in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Three sites from ODP Leg 190 have been evaluated, namely 1173, 1174 and 1177, drilled in nearly undeformed Quaternary and Tertiary sedimentary sequences seaward of the Nankai Trough itself. Paleotemperatures were reconstructed based on subsidence profiles, compaction modelling, present-day heat flow, downhole temperature measurements and organic maturity parameters. Today's heat flow distribution can be considered mainly conductive, and is extremely high in places, reaching 180 mW/m**2. The kinetic parameters describing total hydrocarbon generation, determined by laboratory pyrolysis experiments, were utilized by the model in order to predict the timing of generation in time and space. The model predicts that the onset of present day generation lies between 300 and 500 m below sea floor (5100-5300 m below mean sea level), depending on well location. In the case of Site 1174, 5-10% conversion has taken place by a present day temperature of ca. 85 °C. Predictions were largely validated by on-site hydrocarbon gas measurements. Viable organisms in the same depth range have been proven using 14C-radiolabelled substrates for methanogenesis, bacterial cell counts and intact phospholipids. Altogether, these results point to an overlap of abiotic thermal degradation reactions going on in the same part of the sedimentary column as where a deep biosphere exists. The organic matter preserved in Nankai Trough sediments is of the type that generates putative feedstocks for microbial activity, namely oxygenated compounds and hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the rates of thermal degradation calculated from the kinetic model closely resemble rates of respiration and electron donor consumption independently measured in other deep biosphere environments. We deduce that abiotically driven degradation reactions have provided substrates for microbial activity in deep sediments at this convergent continental margin.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 7
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingpaper
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Morphing Aircraft Structures (MAS) program is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) led effort to develop morphing flight vehicles capable of radical shape change in flight. Two performance parameters of interest are loiter time and dash speed as these define the persistence and responsiveness of an aircraft. The geometrical characteristics that optimize loiter time and dash speed require different geometrical planforms. Therefore, radical shape change, usually involving wing area and sweep, allows vehicle optimization across many flight regimes. The second phase of the MAS program consisted of wind tunnel tests conducted at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate two morphing concepts and their enabling technologies with large-scale semi-span models. This paper will focus upon one of those wind tunnel tests that utilized a model developed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM). Wind tunnel success criteria were developed by NASA to support the DARPA program objectives. The primary focus of this paper will be the demonstration of the DARPA objectives by systematic evaluation of the wind tunnel model performance relative to the defined success criteria. This paper will also provide a description of the LM model and instrumentation, and document pertinent lessons learned. Finally, as part of the success criteria, aeroelastic characteristics of the LM derived MAS vehicle are also addressed. Evaluation of aeroelastic characteristics is the most detailed criterion investigated in this paper. While no aeroelastic instabilities were encountered as a direct result of the morphing design or components, several interesting and unexpected aeroelastic phenomenon arose during testing.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: AIAA 2007-2235 , 48th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference; 23-26 Apr. 2007; Waikiki, HI; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2006-05-06
    Description: Given the choice of waiting for an adverse outcome or getting it over with quickly, many people choose the latter. Theoretical models of decision-making have assumed that this occurs because there is a cost to waiting-i.e., dread. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural responses to waiting for a cutaneous electric shock. Some individuals dreaded the outcome so much that, when given a choice, they preferred to receive more voltage rather than wait. Even when no decision was required, these extreme dreaders were distinguishable from those who dreaded mildly by the rate of increase of neural activity in the posterior elements of the cortical pain matrix. This suggests that dread derives, in part, from the attention devoted to the expected physical response and not simply from fear or anxiety. Although these differences were observed during a passive waiting procedure, they correlated with individual behavior in a subsequent choice paradigm, providing evidence for a neurobiological link between the experienced disutility of dread and subsequent decisions about unpleasant outcomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berns, Gregory S -- Chappelow, Jonathan -- Cekic, Milos -- Zink, Caroline F -- Pagnoni, Giuseppe -- Martin-Skurski, Megan E -- DA00367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K08 DA000367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 May 5;312(5774):754-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. gberns@emory.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16675703" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Anxiety ; Brain Mapping ; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology ; Cues ; *Decision Making ; Electroshock ; *Emotions ; *Fear ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Models, Psychological ; Pain/physiopathology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2008-03-18
    Description: Common human diseases result from the interplay of many genes and environmental factors. Therefore, a more integrative biology approach is needed to unravel the complexity and causes of such diseases. To elucidate the complexity of common human diseases such as obesity, we have analysed the expression of 23,720 transcripts in large population-based blood and adipose tissue cohorts comprehensively assessed for various phenotypes, including traits related to clinical obesity. In contrast to the blood expression profiles, we observed a marked correlation between gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity-related traits. Genome-wide linkage and association mapping revealed a highly significant genetic component to gene expression traits, including a strong genetic effect of proximal (cis) signals, with 50% of the cis signals overlapping between the two tissues profiled. Here we demonstrate an extensive transcriptional network constructed from the human adipose data that exhibits significant overlap with similar network modules constructed from mouse adipose data. A core network module in humans and mice was identified that is enriched for genes involved in the inflammatory and immune response and has been found to be causally associated to obesity-related traits.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Emilsson, Valur -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Zhang, Bin -- Leonardson, Amy S -- Zink, Florian -- Zhu, Jun -- Carlson, Sonia -- Helgason, Agnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn -- Mouy, Magali -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Eiriksdottir, Gudrun H -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Reynisdottir, Inga -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Helgadottir, Anna -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Gretarsdottir, Solveig -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Kristjansson, Kristleifur -- Gislason, Hjortur G -- Stefansson, Tryggvi -- Leifsson, Bjorn G -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Lamb, John R -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Reitman, Marc L -- Kong, Augustine -- Schadt, Eric E -- Stefansson, Kari -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 27;452(7186):423-8. doi: 10.1038/nature06758. Epub 2008 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Blood/metabolism ; Body Mass Index ; Cohort Studies ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Iceland ; Lod Score ; Male ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Obesity/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Sample Size ; Waist-Hip Ratio
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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