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  • 2005-2009  (2)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-05-01
    Description: The paleo-evolution of the Black Sea level during the Lateglacial–Holocene transition is still unclear, which motivates us to provide new estimates for that period based on the analysis of water budget. Hydrological conditions in the Black Sea catchment area are reconstructed here using water balance equation, available data, and constraints based on simple theory relating the runoff ratio with climatic characteristics. In order to estimate the impact of the aridity of climate we consider two alternative scenarios: (1) climate change under constant in time gradient in precipitation and evaporation over land and sea, and (2) climate change accounting for changes in the horizontal distribution of precipitation and evaporation. Hydrological data are compiled from available present-day data and paleo-observations. A number of sensitivity experiments is carried out revealing that the hydrological conditions in the Black Sea watershed should have evolved towards a very arid climate (similar to the present-day climate in the Caspian Sea area) in order to initiate a drop of sea level of ∼100 m below the sill depth of the Bosporus Straits, as speculated in some recent research. Estimates of sea level changes reveal a qualitative agreement with the coast-line evolution inferred from paleo-observations. The Younger Dryas draw down of the Black Sea starts at about 13.3 to 13 kyr BP, with a maximum low-stand of 104 m at 11.5 kyr BP. In an arid climate scenario the sea level reaches the outlet at about 8.8 to 7.4 kyr BP. Approximately at that time, Mediterranean sea level was about 10 m higher, making flooding events of the Black Sea possible. However, the nature and exact timing of the Holocene reconnection depends also on other (not well known) factors; one of them is the Bosporus sill depth, motivating further research in this field. Estimates of the water transport through the Bosporus Straits are also provided for the time of Lateglacial–Holocene transition. ©2006 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0930-7575
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0894
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-04-01
    Description: This work deals with the analysis of simulations carried out with a primitive equation numerical model for the region of the East Frisian Wadden Sea. The model, with 200-m resolution, is forced by wind, air–sea heat, and water fluxes and river runoff and is nested in a German Bight 1-km-resolution numerical model, the latter providing tidal forcing for the fine resolution model. The analysis of numerical simulations is focused both on responses due to moderate conditions, as well as to extreme events, such as the storm surge Britta, for which the model demonstrates very good skills. The question addressed in this paper is how well the model output can be compressed with the help of empirical orthogonal function analysis. It is demonstrated that, for the short-time periods of the order of a spring–neap cycle, only a few modes are necessary to almost fully represent the circulation. This is just an illustration that the circulation in this region is subject to the dominating tidal forcing, creating clear and relatively simple response patterns. However, for longer periods of about several months, wind forcing is also very important, and correspondingly, the circulation patterns become much more complex. Possible applications of the results in hindcasting and forecasting of hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics in the coastal zone are considered. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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