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  • 2005-2009  (4)
  • 1
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    In:  Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors ; Year: 2007 ; Volume: 160 ; Issue: 3-4 ; Pages: 285-309
    Publication Date: 2013-10-16
    Description: A fortuitous sequence of closely spaced earthquakes in the Rana region of northern Norway, during 2005, has provided an ideal natural laboratory for investigating event detectability using waveform correlation over networks and arrays at regional distances. A small number of events between magnitude 2.0 and 3.5 were recorded with a high SNR by the Fennoscandian IMS seismic arrays at distances over 600 km and three of these events, including the largest on 24 June, displayed remarkable waveform similarity even at relatively high frequencies. In an effort to detect occurrences of smaller earthquakes in the immediate geographical vicinity of the 24 June event, a multi-channel correlation detector for the NORSAR array was run for the whole calender year 2005 using the signal from the master event as a template. A total of 32 detections were made and all but 2 of these coincided with independent correlation detections using the other Nordic IMS array stations; very few correspond to signals detectable using traditional energy detectors. Permanent and temporary stations of the Norwegian National Seismic Network (NNSN) at far closer epicentral distances have confirmed that all but one of the correlation detections at NORSAR in fact correspond to real events. The closest stations at distances of approximately 10 km can confirm that the smallest of these events have magnitudes down to 0.5 which represents a detection threshold reduction of over 1.5 for the large-aperture NORSAR array and over 1.0 for the almost equidistant regional ARCES array. The incompleteness of the local network recordings precludes a comprehensive double-difference location for the full set of events. However, stable double-difference relative locations can be obtained for eight of the events using only the Lg phase recorded at the array stations. All events appear to be separated by less than 0.5 km. Clear peaks were observed in the NORSAR correlation coefficient traces during the coda of some of the larger events; the local stations confirm that these are in fact aftershocks exhibiting very similar waveforms to the main events. Many of the more marginal correlation detections are not made when the calculations are repeated using shorter signal segments, fewer sensors or more distant stations. We demonstrate in addition how these almost repeating seismic sources have been exploited to detect and measure timing anomalies at individual sites within the arrays and network.
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2007-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2005-07-01
    Description: In the monitoring of earthquakes and nuclear explosions using a sparse worldwide network of seismic stations, it is frequently necessary to make reliable location estimates using a single seismic array. It is also desirable to screen out routine industrial explosions automatically in order that analyst resources are not wasted upon detections which can, with a high level of confidence, be associated with such a source. The Kovdor mine on the Kola Peninsula of NW Russia is the site of frequent industrial blasts which are well recorded by the ARCES regional seismic array at a distance of approximately 300 km. We describe here an automatic procedure for identifying signals which are likely to result from blasts at the Kovdor mine and, wherever possible, for obtaining single array locations for such events. Carefully calibrated processing parameters were chosen using measurements from confirmed events at the mine over a one-year period for which the operators supplied Ground Truth information. Phase arrival times are estimated using an autoregressive method and slowness and azimuth are estimated using broadband f {-} k analysis in fixed frequency bands and time-windows fixed relative to the initial P-onset time. We demonstrate the improvement to slowness estimates resulting from the use of fixed frequency bands. Events can be located using a single array if, in addition to the P-phase, at least one secondary phase is found with both an acceptable slowness estimate and valid onset-time estimate. We evaluate the on-line system over a twelve month period; every event known to have occured at the mine is detected by the process and 32 out of 53 confirmed events were located automatically. The remaining events were classified as “very likely” Kovdor events and were subsequently located by an analyst. The false alarm rate is low; only 84 very likely Kovdor events were identified during the whole of 2003 and none of these were subsequently located at a large distance from the mine. The location accuracy achieved automatically by the single-array process is remarkably good, and is comparable to that obtained interactively by an experienced analyst using two-array observations. The greatest problem encountered in the single array location procedure is the difficulty in determining arrival times for secondary phases, given the weak Sn phase and the complexity of the P-coda. The method described here could be applied to a wide range of locations and sources for which the monitoring of seismic activity is desirable. The effectiveness will depend upon the distance between source and receiver, the nature of the seismic sources and the level of regional seismicity. ©2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
    Print ISSN: 1383-4649
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-157X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2007-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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